Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 2: 5/12

う-Verb (Dictionary)
Godan Verbs

Short form is also often called 'casual form' (because it is used in casual language), or 'plain form'


+ ます
+ ます
+ ます
+ ます
+ ます
死(し) + ます
飛(と) + ます
休(やす) + ます
泳(およ) + ます
Part of Speech Verb
Word Type Independent Word
Register Standard
品詞 動詞
単語の種類 自立語
使用域 一般
う-Verbs include all of the verbs in Japanese that end in う sounds (including some of the verbs that end in る). These verbs are called 五段(ごだん) (Godan) ‘five-step’ verbs in Japanese, due to their conjugations using all 5 of the different sounds in the same 段(だん) (column) that their base form comes from.
  • 私(わたし)パンク聞(き)
    I also listen to punk music.
  • 学生(がくせい)たち先生(せんせい)話(はなし)聞(き)きます
    The students listen to the teachers also.
As we can see here, the く in 聞(き)く changes to き when conjugated to the polite form. All of the other sounds the K-column will be used with 聞(き)く, depending on the conjugation. This is the same for all of the う-Verbs.
聞(き)(か)ない, 聞(き)(き)たい, 聞(き)(く), 聞(き)(け)る, 聞(き)(こ)う
Here we can see the う-Verb 聞(き)く using all of the different K-column sounds in various conjugations.
Just like with る-Verbs, the base form of the verb may be called ‘plain form’, ‘casual form’, or ‘short form’, depending on the source/book.
Slow Male
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To listen/hear
[Casual form → Polite form]
To sit down
[Casual form → Polite form]
To drink
[Casual form → Polite form]
Genki I
Page 58
みんなの日本語 I
Page 116 [CH 18]
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 88
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 43~47
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 87