Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 2: 4/12

る-Verb (Dictionary)
Ichidan Verbs

Short form is also often called 'casual form' (because it is used in casual language), or 'plain form'

Structure
Casual
Formal
Examples:
食べ


Examples:
食べ + ます
+ ます
+ ます
Details
Part of Speech Verb
Word Type Independent Word
Register Standard
品詞 動詞
単語の種類 自立語
使用域 一般
Information
る-Verbs (Ichidan verbs) are verbs that have only one possible conjugation pattern. This pattern simply involves the replacement of る with another construction, depending on the tense of the verb (past, negative, etc). This ‘single’ type of conjugation is where the Japanese name 一段 (Ichidan) ‘one-step’ comes from.
  • 生徒(せいと)答(こた)え
    The student answers.
  • 生徒(せいと)答(こた)えます
    The student answers.
  • 私(わたし)閉(し)め
    I will close it. (‘It’ is implied, despite no object being stated)
  • 私(わたし)閉(し)めます
    I will close it. (‘It’ is implied, despite no object being stated)
In these examples, we can see that る is removed from the verb to create the polite ます form. The る form of the verb is often called ‘plain form’, ‘casual form’, or ‘short form’, depending on the source/book.
All る-Verbs end in the kana る, there are no exceptions to this rule.
Caution
While all る-Verbs end in る, not all verbs that end in る are る-Verbs. These verbs can be identified by the る changing, rather than being removed when conjugated.
  • それ取(と)
    I will take that too.
  • それ取(と)ります
    I will take that too.
As the る in 取(と)る becomes り in 取(と)ります, we can determine immediately that it is not a る-Verb, but actually a う - Verb.
Slow Male
Hide All
Hide Japanese
Hide English
見(み)見(み)ます
To look
[short → polite]
Play  
寝(ね)寝(ね)ます
To go to sleep
[short → polite]
Play  
覚(おぼ)え覚(おぼ)えます
To memorize/remember
[short → polite]
Play  
Books
Genki I
Page 58
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 88
みんなの日本語 I
Page 116 [CH 18]
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 43~47
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 87