文法の説明

N5 レッスン 3: 7/13

()

To be, There is

有る kanji use can be seen

使い方・接続

Noun + + ある

詳細

  • 品詞

    Expression

  • 品詞

    Verb

  • 使用域

    Standard

  • 品詞

    表現

  • 単語の種類

    動詞

  • 使用域

    一般

「がある」の情報

がある is a common construction that is simply a combination of the particle, and the う-Verb, ある. This expression means 'to exist', or 'there is', and is used in relation to non-living/inanimate things.
  • 明日(あした)、テストがある
    There is a test tomorrow.
  • 部屋(へや)椅子(いす)がある
    I have a chair in my room.
Because the things being described in these examples are not considered to be 'alive', ある is the verb that will be used. いる is used for living things.
The polite form of ある conjugates as あります. Due to the る changing to り, we can determine that ある is a う-Verb (Godan verb). However, ある is irregular in that the plain negative form is ない, not あらない.
  • キッチンケーキがある
    There is a cake in the kitchen. (Correct example)
  • キッチンケーキがあります
    There is a cake in the kitchen. (Correct example)
  • (かね)がない
    I have no money. (Correct example)
  • トイレがありません
    There is no toilet. (Correct example)
  • にんじんがあらない。
    Theren't carrots. (Incorrect example, with incorrect English to match!)
The kanji form of () is quite common, and should be learned as early as possible, to save any confusion while reading. There is no nuance difference between this expression being used with, or without kanji, and is up to the preference of the writer.
  • 今日(きょう)時間(じかん)()
    I have time today.
Caution
The in がある is often omitted in casual speech, or writing that behaves like casual speech (manga, instant messaging, etc).
  • 冷蔵庫(れいぞうこ)(なか)(なに)ある
    What's in the refrigerator?

例文

  • (ほん)がある

    There is a book.

  • ペンがある

    There is a pen.

  • 時間(じかん)があります

    There is time.

  • 仕事(しごと)がある

    There is work.

  • エレベーターがあります

    There is an elevator.

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「がある」に関する文法ディスカッション

最近の返信 (合計14件)

  • XReaper95

    XReaper95

    約3年前

    I have a a problem… i think. I hide the english hints completely when doing reviews, just for an extra challenge, but some examples show [casual] as a placeholder, so there is no way to know when to write がある or だ. Some proof:

    This shows for some examples of different questions:

  • matt_in_mito

    matt_in_mito

    約3年前

    The site doesn’t work too well without English translations. For your extra challenge I suggest that you switch to yellow text only, so you know the grammar point you’re aiming for, but don’t get the full sentence in English.

  • XReaper95

    XReaper95

    約3年前

    I see, well thats to bad, I was not expecting to run into a problem like that, as that is an option they have. I guess that using the smallest hint is the solution then. Thank you!

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