N4 レッスン 1: 15/18

れる・られる (Passive)

Was done to ~ by ~, Done without consent, Done to one's dismay


[る1]Verb() + られる
[る⁵]Verb → (すわ) + られる
[う]Verb(うた) + われる
[く]Verb(ある) + かれる
[す]Verb(はな) + される
[つ]Verb() + たれる
[ぬ]Verb() + なれる
[ぶ]Verb() + ばれる
[む]Verb(やす) + まれる
[ぐ]Verb(およ) + がれる



  • 使用域


  • 使用域



In Japanese, there are several ways to express that something 'passively' happens. All of these are done with the auxiliary verbs れる and られる. Japanese verbs in the passive form behave in a slightly different way than they do in English, so we will examine this difference more closely later. For now, let's focus on れる, られる, and される (the form used with する verbs).
Passivity in Japanese means that the person (or thing) that is the target of the action will be the subject of the sentence, rather than the person that is 'doing' whatever verb is being used.
You can conjugate any Japanese verb into the passive form in the following way. For う-Verbs (godan verbs), simply replace the last kana with the equivalent あ sound kana from the same row (す becomes さ, つ becomes た, ぶ becomes ば, う becomes わ, like with ない, and so on), then add れる, or られる. For る-Verbs (ichidan verbs), just replace the る with られる.
  • (いぬ)()れるのが(こわ)から(いぬ)(ちか)づけない。
    Because I am afraid of getting bitten by a dog, I can't approach them.
  • (わたし)いつも(かれ)(くら)られる
    I always get compared to him.
する and くる behave slightly differently than most other verbs. For する, it will become される, while くる will become こられる.
  • ()ない(ひと)からいたずらされるきらい
    I don't like being pranked by strangers.
  • (きゅう)義理(ぎり)(はは)()られる(こま)
    I feel troubled when my mother in law visits unannounced.
As can be seen in these examples, the 'doer' of the verb will be marked with , but から can also be used in cases where there is no physical contact with the subject.
られる can be used in several different situations. These are listed below.
Passive: ()() - Something happens to the subject as a result of an external force (sometimes sounds negative).
Possible: 可能(かのう) - There is the possibility for something to be done.
Spontaneous: 自発(じはつ) - Something happens by itself, or 'without instigation'.
Respectful: 尊敬(そんけい) - You are respecting someone by making them the subject of the sentence, despite someone else actually performing the verb.
Fun Fact
In Japanese, passivity focuses on the lack of control of the subject of the sentence. Due to this, the subject will sometimes be called the なる人, while the doer of the verb is called the する人.
Traditionally, many textbooks use the term 'passive', simply because there is no equivalent verb type in English (passive is the closest). However, we would like to introduce the term 'displacement verb'. This just means that the subject of the sentence is being described in a similar way to what happens in keigo (polite speech).
But wait, what about れる with る-Verbs! Well, in Japanese, ら removal words 'ラ()言葉(ことば)' are very common. These are words that are able to use れる, instead of られる. The original meaning of both of these auxiliary verbs is exactly the same, but there are cases where ら may not be removed. The standard rules are as follows.
ら may be removed - る-Verbs and くる, when the meaning is 'possible'.
ら may not be removed - る-Verbs and くる, when the meaning is 'passive', 'spontaneous', or 'respectful'.
  • (わたし)どこでも()ます
    I can sleep anywhere. (I have the potential to sleep anywhere)
  • (わたし)どこでも()られる
    I can sleep anywhere. (I have the potential to sleep anywhere)
In both of these sentences, the meaning is exactly the same. However, ラ()き may only be used when られる is being used to highlight 'possibility'.




    My ice cream was eaten by my brother.


    My strange conversation was overheard by my parents.


    I was praised for cleaning my room.


    Even though I did my homework, I forgot to bring it with me. I wonder what will be said to me.


    It doesn't matter what is done to me by them, I won't give up your name to them.

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最近の返信 (合計28件)

  • Aikibujin


    Ah gotcha! Thank you

  • paprikayes


    Hi all, I find myself confused by the intricacies of passive form pretty often. The thing that gets me most is the use of に to describe the “actor” of a passive sentence. I understand that generally the subject of a passively-conjugated verb in a sentence is the “receiver” of an action performed by the “actor” that may or may not be explicitly made clear. If we do want to specify a someone or something as performing the action on the subject, we can mark it with に.

    I find that in practice this rule is broken pretty often, unless I am misinterpreting the grammatical rules or passive conjugations entirely. For instance, this sentence appears as an example in the ”こそ” grammar point:

    それこそ ()()えられた使命()だと()っています

    I think that is why I was chosen for the errand.


  • nekoyama


    に can mark the actor in a passive construction.
    に can also mark the target of 与える.
    So this sentence is technically ambiguous.
    But it doesn’t really sound like something one would say about a mission given by the speaker to some unnamed third party, so it’s probably the second case where 僕 is the target for 与える.

    If the entity that gave 僕 the mission was stated, it could be marked with から and there would be no ambiguity.

    が would mark the thing that is being 与えられる’d, which is 使命. In this sentence it has become the head of the relative clause instead, but if this wasn’t a relative clause e.g. in a sentence like 僕に使命が与えられた, then 使命 would be what gets marked with が.

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