Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 6: 5/17


Regardless of (whatever … is), Irrespective of (whatever … is)

いかん is a formal written expression meaning “how"/ “in what way”


Noun + (の) + いかん + ()わらず(1)

(1) によら()わず


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About いかん〜ず

When the noun いかん 'how', or 'what' is paired with a verb negated with the classical auxiliary verb ず, it will commonly be translated as 'regardless of (A), (B)', or 'irrespective of (A), (B)'. The verbs used for this construction are restricted to (かか)わらず 'without relation', によらず 'without approaching', and を()わず 'without questioning.
いかん〜ず come after a noun followed by the case marking particle の.
  • 天候(てんこう)いかんに(かか)わらず明日(あした)のコンサートは予定(よてい)(どお)りに開催(かいさい)されます。
    Regardless of the weather, the concert tomorrow will be held as scheduled.
  • 予約日(よやくび)の24時間(じかん)(まえ)であれば、理由(りゆう)いかんによらず、キャンセル(りょう)()られずにキャンセルをすることができます。
    Cancellations may be made 24 hours prior to the appointment date, regardless of the reason without incurring a cancellation fee.
  • 未経験者(みけいけんしゃ)経験者(けいけんしゃ)いかんを()わず、ここで(はたら)(まえ)には新規(しんき)研修(けんしゅう)()けてもらいます。
    Regardless of whether you are experienced or not, we require everyone to undergo training before working here.
いかん〜ず is a formal grammar pattern that is used primarily to express that (B) will not be affected by (A), even if it is something that would usually be expected. Because of this, 'without taking (A) into account' is another fairly accurate translation of the nuance.




    License agreement: 'The company will not be held responsible for any damage caused due to the improper usage of the product regardless of (what) the circumstances (are).'


    Return policy of a store: 'It is possible to return any product, free of charge, regardless of (what) the reason (is) if the return falls within two weeks of the delivery of the product.'


    School policy: 'The school will not discriminate regardless of religion or ethnic origin, and so on, in its programs or activities.'


    If the student does not achieve a passing mark in any part of the exam, then regardless of (what) the results of the other parts (are) the test will be considered failed.


    A registration confirmation email: 'We kindly ask you to not reply to this message. Even if you do so, this mail address is dedicated only to sending, therefore we will not be able to answer, regardless of (what) the contents of the message (are). Thank you for your understanding.'

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