Grammar Info

N5 Lesson 3: 8/13

()

To be, There is, To remain (in a state)

居る kanji use can frequently be seen

Structure

Noun + + いる

Details

  • Part of Speech

    Expression

  • Word Type

    Verb

  • Register

    Standard

  • 品詞

    表現

  • 単語の種類

    動詞

  • 使用域

    一般

About がいる

がいる is a common construction that is simply a combination of the particle, and the verb いる. This expression means 'to exist', or 'there is', and is used in relation to living/animate things.
  • 警察(けいさつ)がいる
    There is a police officer.
  • (ねこ)がいる
    There is a cat.
  • パトカーがいる
    There is a police car. (Operated by police)
Because the things being described in these examples are considered to be alive (or operated by something that is alive), いる is the verb that will be used. ある is used for non-living things.
The polite form of いる conjugates as います. Due to the る being removed, we can determine that いる is a る-Verb (Ichidan verb).
The kanji form of () is quite common, and should be learned as early as possible to save any confusion while reading. There is no nuance difference between this expression being used with or without kanji, and is up to the preference of the writer.
  • (わたし)彼女(かのじょ)()
    I have a girlfriend.
Caution
The in がいる is often omitted in casual speech, or writing that behaves like casual speech (manga, instant messaging, etc).
  • そこ警察(けいさつ)()
    There is a cop over there.

Examples

  • (わたし)がいる

    I am (here).

  • トムがいます

    Tom is (here).

  • 田中(たなか)さんトムがいます

    Mr. Tanaka and Tom are (there).

  • 先生(せんせい)がいます

    There is a teacher.

  • (わたし)友達(ともだち)がいます

    A friend and I are (here).

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