Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 1: 4/23

~ざる

To not ~, Un~

Structure

Details

    About ~ざる

    ざる is the attributive form of the classical auxiliary verb ず. It keeps the same negation 'not' meaning as ず, and will conjugate with verbs in the same way as ない. ざる will also often be translated as 'un~', like in 'unstoppable'.
    In most cases, ざる will be seen attached to verbs that are describing a noun that comes directly after them.
    • (かれ)はどんな(つら)(とき)でも弱音(よわね)()ざる(ひと)だ。
      He is a person that will not complain, no matter how hard it gets.
    • 記事(きじ)のタイトル:「演歌(えんか)歌手(かしゅ)鈴木(すずき)太朗(たろう)()られざる過去(かこ)。」
      Title of an article: 'The unknown past of the enka singer Suzuki Taro.'
    Although ざる may be used in place of ない, in modern Japanese it is primarily only seen as part of common expressions or sayings, such as the ざるを()ない 'have no choice but to (A)' grammar structure.
    Caution - As with many old-fashioned grammar patterns, ざる will conjugate with the せ stem of する, rather than the more modern し stem.
    • 病気(びょうき)事故(じこ)などの理由(りゆう)で、宿泊(しゅくはく)をキャンセルせざるおえない場合(ばあい)はキャンセル(りょう)発生(はっせい)(いた)しません。
      No cancellation fee will be charged if you need to cancel your stay due to illness or accident.
    Fun-fact - Some dictionaries list ざる as the attributive form of the classical auxiliary verb ざり. However, ざり itself is just a contraction of ず and あり 'to be'. Due to this, both variations may be considered as correct, with ず being the underlying origination.

    Examples

    --:--

    • ()ざる失敗(しっぱい)にも、(ぼく)(けっ)して()けません。

      I will absolutely not lose, not even to unending failures.

      • たゆまざる努力(どりょく)をすることが、成功(せいこう)への(かぎ)だ。

        Putting in unrelenting effort is the key to success.

        • あの作家(さっか)()られざる名画(めいが)(ぼく)()っています。

          I know that artist's unknowable masterpiece.

          • ()ざる(きず)()ってしまい、()()んでいる。

            I suffered a wound that will not disappear, so I am depressed.

            • (うそ)をつかざる(ひと)しか信頼(しんらい)することができない。

              You cannot trust anyone apart from a person who does not lie.

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