Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 3: 4/13

With

Structure
Noun (A) + は + Noun (B) + + Verb
Details
Part of Speech Particle
Word Type Case Marking Particle
Register Standard
品詞 助詞
単語の種類 格助詞
使用域 一般
Information
In this lesson about , we will look at the common translation of ‘with’ that is associated with this particle. shows that there is a relationship between (A) and (B), regardless of if that relationship is translated as ‘and’, or ‘with’. In each case, the things that are marked with are usually all performing some mutual action (that mutual action may simply be existing).
  • カレーご飯(はん)食(た)べ
    I eat curry with rice. (I eat rice ‘and’ curry)
  • コーヒー彼女(かのじょ)飲(の)
    I drink coffee with my wife. (I ‘and’ my wife drink coffee)
When is used as ‘with’, it means that both/all people or objects are equally involved in the action. However, highlights that one person is the target (destination) of an action, so will result in something sounding a lot more one sided.
  • 先生(せんせい)話(はな)
    I will talk with my teacher. (Focus on both people talking)
  • 先生(せんせい)話(はな)
    I will talk to my teacher. (Focus on only one person talking)
Here we can see that both people are talking when is used. It is a mutual conversation. When is used, however, the person marked by is being talked ‘to’, and is usually not actively participating in the conversation.
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トム話(はな)す
I talk with Tom.
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僕(ぼく)友達(ともだち)ごはん食(た)べる
I will eat food with my friend.
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ゆうこさんみおさんコーヒー飲(の)む
Yuko-san drinks coffee with Mio-san.
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