Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 3: 2/18


Such as, Things like, Etc., And so on


Noun + など
Noun + など + + Noun


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About など

など is an adverbial particle that is used to express that something is being presented as an example, but that other things in the same category also exist. In this way, it is regularly translated as 'such as', 'things like', or 'and so on'.
など may be used after nouns, to describe that (A) is being presented as an example from within a group. Alternatively, など can be followed by (B), to show that (A) is only one type of thing from the broader category, (B).
  • この公園(こうえん)(いし)など()ないでください
    Do not throw rocks and so on in this park.
  • (かれ)いつもルームメイトなど悪口(わるぐち)()ています
    He is always badmouthing people, like his roommates.
など is regularly seen in its kanji form, (など). This kanji itself has a similar meaning to 'etc' in English.
Fun Fact
The kanji for (など) is also used in the pluralizing suffix, . Due to this, we can see that this kanji is regularly utilized to highlight something that exists as part of a larger group.
  • (かばん)(くつ)(など)(かわ)()てはならない
    You mustn't discard things such as bags and shoes into the river.
  • あいつ本当(ほんとう)にうるさ
    Those people are very noisy, don't you think.
In the first sentence, など presents (A) as being part of a larger group of similar things. This is exactly the same thing that happens in the second sentence with .
Fun Fact
など is also sometimes written as なんか, and has an interchangeable meaning in many situations. However, なんか will never use the kanji form of (など).


  • イタリアアメリカなど()きたい

    I want to go to places such as America and Italy.

  • 宿題(しゅくだい)てからゲームなどゆっくりする

    After doing my homework, I relax with things like video games.

  • フルーツぶどうなど()です

    As for fruits, I like fruits such as grapes.

  • 趣味(しゅみ)など(おし)えてください

    Please tell me things like your hobbies.

  • 明日(あした)から準備(じゅんび)などするつもりです

    From tomorrow, I plan on doing things like preparing.

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など – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (7 in total)

  • Schuylerca


    Recently came across something that I am not sure if it’s colloquial or if it’s official grammer as Japanese tends to be so fluid anyway, but I went through all my grammar resources and (including bunpro), they all say など gets used with nouns. Nothing forbidding it being used with verbs but nothing about how it is used with verbs.

    I know it gets used with verbs as natives have corrected some of my writing and I questioned why など vs とか and the only answer I got is that it sounded more natural. So I went on a hunt for grammar rules around using など with verbs and found nothing definitive. I did finally find in one particle book “All About Particles” by Naoko Chino mentions it can be used with verbs (the last example in the book no 6 of 6 with a meaning of “something to the effect that”.

    Asked some other native speakers and it isn’t wrong but it makes me wonder…is bunpro missing this as an optional use or is this one of those things that if it were an English teacher f...

  • nekoyama


    There are several cases where it’s used with other things than nouns, for example when quoting something (…などと, also see the とは grammar point for a mention) or in patterns like …などする.

    You can find a few of them in 教師と学習者のための日本語文型辞典.

  • Schuylerca


    I don’t have a copy of that book/ref but thank you for posting… the quoting example is exactly how it was done in the ref I mentioned…

    specifically though the correction that I received was from とか to など。wasn’t quoting anything
    No quoting particles… Have talked to a few Japanese friends and haven’t gotten a straight answer, not a big deal just weird…

    in any case…I can kind of see how the meaning might be more natural (even if the quoting particle is omitted)…

    will be interesting to see if anyone has any other references/input.


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