Grammar Info

N1 Lesson 9: 8/20

ずくめ

Completely, Entirely, All in, Nothing but, A real streak of, Without exception, Jet

づくめ is an older, pre-reform variant. ずくめ should be used instead., There is another suffix that uses づくし, meaning “all sorts/kinds of (A)”

Structure

Noun + ずくめ
Noun (A) + ずくめ + + Noun (B)

Details

  • Register

    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About ずくめ

Originally stemming from the suffix use of ()く 'completely', or 'using solely', and the addition of め, ずくめ came to be preferentially written as hiragana, with ず replacing づ. This structure may be translated as 'completely (A)', 'all in (A)', or 'nothing but (A)'. Generally, it is attached directly to nouns, and expresses that (A) is to such an extent that nothing apart from (A) can be seen, felt, or noticed.
In cases where ずくめ will directly modify the following noun, の will come between ずくめ and that noun.
  • 今月(こんげつ)仕事(しごと)ずくめになりそうだ。
    It seems like I'm going to be doing nothing but work again this month.
  • 最近(さいきん)(いや)なことずくめ全然(ぜんぜん)(たの)しくない。
    I'm not having the best time right now, because nothing but bad things are happening.
  • (かれ)(くろ)ずくめ(おとこ)たちに誘拐(ゆうかい)された。
    He was kidnapped by men covered in black.
  • 警察(けいさつ)への電話(でんわ):もしもし、(いえ)(まえ)(くろ)ずくめ(くるま)何台(なんだい)()まっているんで(いま)から()住所(じゅうしょ)まできてもらってもいいですか。
    Calling the cops: Hello, there are several jet black cars parked in front of my house, so could you please come to the address I'm about to tell you?
Although づくめ may occasionally be seen in older literature, it is mostly considered incorrect kana usage these days.
While ずくめ may be used in either positive or negative contexts, it is mainly seen in set expressions, so is best used with combinations that you have already heard or read.
Fun Fact
()くし is another older structure that is used to express things that are separate, but are grouped together. This is usually translated as 'all sorts of (A)', or 'all kinds of (A)'. It is the conjunctive form of the う-Verb ()くす 'to be exhaustive' with a voiced pronunciation of the つ.
  • (くに)づくしの(えら)(ひと)(あつ)まった。
    Great people from all sorts of countries gathered.

Examples

--:--

  • 新聞(しんぶん)見出(みだ)し:「6(がつ)猛暑(もうしょ)記録(きろく)ずくめ

    Newspaper headline: 'June - A Heatwave full of Temperature Records'

    • 規制(きせい)必要(ひつよう)ある規則(きそく)ずくめ窒息(ちっそく)そう社会(しゃかい)強圧的(きょうあつてき)ではないだろうか。

      Regulations are needed, but isn't a society that is about to suffocate with nothing but restrictions overbearing?

      • 2020(ねん)異例(いれい)ずくめ大変(たいへん)(とし)でしたが(なん)とか()()りました。

        2020 was a very challenging year full of irregularities, but we somehow got through it.

        • ツイッターの投稿(とうこう):「(あさ)から(ばん)まで、ごちそうずくめ結婚(けっこん)(いわ)う。」

          Twitter post: 'We are celebrating the marriage with nothing but delicacies from morning till night.'

          • (くろ)ずくめスーツ()(つつ)んだ(おとこ)はベンチに(すわ)り、(さか)さに()った新聞(しんぶん)()ふりをしていた。

            A man dressed in a completely black suit was sitting on a bench and pretending to read a newspaper that was upside down.

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