The two most fundamental divisions that can be made with Japanese verbs are 他動詞（たどうし） (transitive verbs - the subject is moving/acting upon something else), and 自動詞（じどうし） (intransitive verbs - the subject themself is moving/acting). Sometimes these terms are simplified even further to ‘other-move’ (transitive), and ‘self-move’ (intransitive).
Basically, this is the difference between verbs that require an object marked with を
(transitive verbs), and those that only require が
, to show that the subject itself is moving (intransitive).
In Japanese, there are many transitive/intransitive pairs of verbs, and these will need to be memorized.
To put out a candle.
For a candle to be put out by the wind.
The banana fell from the tree.
To drop a banana from a tree.
In Japanese, the two ways in which all verbs can be described are 動作（どうさ） (an act/motion), and 作用（さよう） (an act/motion upon something).
Although they are not traditionally grouped this way, する
and なる may also be thought of as a transitive/intransitive pair. This is due to always implying that something is being controlled (acted upon), while なる always implies that something happens on its own, or cannot be controlled.
From next year I am going to live in America. (I have decided to live in America starting next year)
From next year I am going to live in America. (I will be living in America starting next year due to work/school/family matters beyond my direct control)