文法の説明

N4 レッスン 6: 7/16

~てしまう

To do something by accident, To finish completely・totally, Unfortunately

使い方・接続

Verb[て]+ しまう
Verb[] + ちゃう(1)

(1) じゃう(*)

(*) Used when Verb[て]ends with で

詳細

  • 使用域

    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

「てしまう・ちゃう」の情報

By combining the conjunction particle , with the verb しまう (sometimes written as (しま)), you are able to express that something was done 'by accident', 'completely', or 'unfortunately'. These meanings may seem quite different, but we will discuss their similarities in a moment. Let's look at a few examples of てしまう first.
  • (わたし)すぐに(みち)(まよ)てしまう
    Unfortunately, I easily get lost.
  • (いえ)菓子(かし)いっぱいある全部(ぜんぶ)()てしまうので菓子(かし)()ないようにしている
    When there are a lot of snacks in my house, I completely eat them all, so I try not to buy them.
  • メニューアイスクリームがある(たの)でしまう
    When there is ice-cream on the menu, I unfortunately order it.
  • (わたし)よく(した)()でしまう。
    I accidentally bite my tongue often.
As we can see, verbs that usually take instead of will be no different when using てしまう.
Sometimes, てしまう or でしまう will be shortened to a more casual form, which are often used in speech. These forms are as follows:
てしまう will become ちゃう
でしまう will become じゃう
  • 最近(さいきん)運動(うんどう)してないから(ふと)ちゃう
    Recently, I haven't been exercising, so I'm totally going to get fat.
  • (はな)()じゃうから(はな)()な。
    Since the flowers will unfortunately die, don't step on them.
Fun Fact
While (しま) is most frequently written in hiragana, 仕舞(しま) may also be seen. There is a slight nuance difference between these two kanji structures, but the primary meaning of しまう will always be that 'something has come to the point where ending/ending up in a specific state cannot be avoided'. This 'no turning back point' may be temporary (likely to be written as 仕舞(しま)う), or it may be permanent (likely to be written as (しま)).
Due to this 'cannot be avoided' nuance, しまう often comes across as 'totally', as in 'ah… I totally left the chicken in the oven for too long'. In these cases, it is simply expressing the speaker's exasperation that something is 'too late' to change. However, despite regularly being used negatively, てしまう can also be used positively. In these cases it still has the nuance of 'no turning back'.
  • ゲーム(はじ)める(まえ)宿題(しゅくだい)()わらせてしまおう
    Let's completely finish my homework before I start playing video games! (I'm going to completely finish my homework before I start playing video games)
  • 青木(あおき)先輩(せんぱい)定時(ていじ)までに社長(しゃちょう)(たの)まれたレポート完成(かんせい)させてしまいましょう
    Aoki senpai, let's completely finish the report that our boss has asked us to do before work is over.

例文

--:--

  • (かさ)(わす)れてしまった

    I unfortunately forgot my umbrella. (I totally forgot my umbrella)

    • 友達(ともだち)(わたし)ケーキ()べてしまった

      My friend finished off my cake.

      • (さら)()てしまった

        (Someone) accidentally broke a plate.

        • (いま)()ないと(おく)てしまう

          If you don't leave now, you will totally be late.

          • ごめん!(たまご)全部(ぜんぶ)使(つか)てしまった

            Sorry! I completely used all the eggs. (Sorry! I totally used all the eggs)

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            「てしまう・ちゃう」に関する文法ディスカッション

            最近の返信 (合計24件)

            • Pablunpro

              Pablunpro

              Hello!

              I just saw Kaname Naito’s video on this grammar and thought it was quite clarifying. Would it be a good idea to add it to the オンライン section?

              Thank you for your consideration, 良い一日を

            • xgc1986

              xgc1986

              Hi, for some reason it says my solution is wrong, is it wrong using the polite form or I am missing something?

            • Fuga

              Fuga

              Hey @xgc1986 !

              We have just added わすれてしまいました to the list of answers that would trigger a hint so that the it wouldn’t be counted as wrong!

            「てしまう・ちゃう」について質問がありますか? 話し合ったり、質問をしてみんなで学びましょう!

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