Like ないで ‘without’, ことなく
is an expression used in Japanese following verbs that expresses (B) being done ‘without (A)’. However; ことなく
is used in more formal situations, and when there is some contrast between (A) and (B). This may appear in one of two ways, which we will discuss in a moment.
is a mix of こと, and なく, the adverbial form of ない. It will follow the dictionary form of verbs.
The first contrastive use of ことなく
illustrates that (A) is something negative, to which (B) should be done as a preventative measure, or was able to be done while avoiding (A).
They were able to rescue all the hostages without injuring anyone.
I was able to arrive at work without being late.
The second use of ことなく
highlights when (A) is something that was or would be wished for, but unfortunately (B) happened without it being realized. In this way, (A) is frequently some kind of unmet desire.
Ten years pass without the culprit being caught.
He quit his job without telling the boss.