is a verb that is used in Japanese to mean ‘to exceed’, or ‘to go past’. It keeps this meaning when it is attached to other words, and creates the Japanese equivalent of saying that something is ‘too much’. すぎる
can be joined to the ます stem of verbs, the stem form of い-Adjectives
(simply remove the い), or the stem form of な-Adjectives
(simply remove the な
Working too hard is not good for your health.
This is way too hot.
For me, the countryside is way too quiet.
, the る
is regularly omitted, with すぎ
being used by itself. This is a casual language pattern, and something you will hear all the time. This variation may be used with any word that すぎる
would usually be used with.
This dog is too cute!
There are a few rules that you will need to be careful about when using すぎる
. The first of these unique rules is using すぎる
. When linked to ない
, the い changes to さ, creating the structure なさすぎる
. This means ‘too much not (A)’, or more naturally in English ‘not enough (A)’.
As with regular ない
will be required when used after な-Adjectives
That person is DEFINITELY not type. (Literally ‘they are too much not my type’)
I don't have enough money. (Literally ‘I have too much of no money’)
This store does not have enough goods. (This store has too much of nothing)
In the third example here, we can see that the さ has been omitted. This is technically not correct Japanese, but has become very common among young people, so it still sounds natural.
The second unique rule is when using すぎる
to mean ‘too good’. Because すぎる
is used with the stem form of い-Adjectives
, you will need to remember that the stem form of いい
is not actually い, but よ. This means that よすぎる would be correct, while いすぎる is not.
This song is too good.
itself is a verb, it can also appear in the negative form, this confuses a lot of learners, and is something that needs to be practiced. Let’s have a look at all of the ways that すぎる
could possibly appear with ない
Because I don’t go to school enough, my grades are going down. (Literally, I don’t go too much)
He doesn't not go to the toilet enough. (A double negative that becomes positive)
Don't go to the arcade too often. (The negative focus is on ‘too much’, and sounds more like a request)
Because the meaning is different in each one of these sentences, depending on where the ない
is, and how many ない
’s there are, you may need to be careful while reading these, until it starts to feel natural.