Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 3: 1/13

At, In

Structure
Place +
Details
Part of Speech Particle
Word Type Case Marking Particle
Register Standard
品詞 助詞
単語の種類 格助詞
使用域 一般
Information
is a particle that has several different uses in Japanese. At its core, it is always used to highlight something that is ‘required’ to perform some sort of action. One of these uses relates to places, and translates roughly as ‘at’, or ‘in’ in English.
  • 私(わたし)ここピザ食(た)べ
    I eat pizza here. (At this place)
  • 私(わたし)部屋(へや)寝(ね)
    I sleep in my room.
In these sentences, the place is considered essential for the action to be performed, or the result of the action to be achieved. This is unlike the particle , which marks the location itself as being the destination or target of an action. Basically, means (A) ‘place’ allows (B) ‘action’ to occur. While means (A) ‘place’ is the target for (B) ‘action’ occurring.
  • 彼(かれ)公園(こうえん)にいます
    He is at the park. (He is at the park, but the park isn’t ‘allowing’ him to be there)
  • 彼(かれ)公園(こうえん)バーベキューする。
    He BBQs at the park. (Because there are barbecues at the park, it is allowing him to cook)
In the first example, we can see that marks the place that the person exists during an action, but the action itself is not dependent on the place. In the second example, the action is considered dependent on being at that place, as there are possibly no barbeques in other areas.
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私(わたし)ここサッカーする
I play soccer here.
[The particle で denotes the location where the action is taking place]
Play  
そこ泳(およ)ぎます
Will you swim there?
[The particle で denotes the location where the action is taking place]
Play  
教室(きょうしつ)寝(ね)る
I sleep in the classroom.
[The particle で denotes the location where the action is taking place]
Play  
Books
Marugoto Elementary 1 (A2) Rikai
Page 26
みんなの日本語 I
Page 44 [CH 6]
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 105
Genki I
Page 60
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 90
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 58