Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 8: 12/23


In, On, At, Regarding, In terms of

For why におく and においた are not used to modify nouns, click here.


Noun + おいて
Noun + における (1) + Noun



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About において・における

において is a combination of the case marking particle in, and the 接続語(せつぞくご) (conjunction) おいて. Either ()いて, or ()ける may be used, with no difference in meaning. において itself is usually translated as 'at', 'in', 'on', or 'regarding'.
において (or における) will be used after nouns, or when connecting one noun to another. In the case of connecting one noun to another, における, or においての will be required.
  • 現代(げんだい)において、インターネットなし生活(せいかつ)(かんが)えられない
    In this day and age, it is impossible to think of a life without the internet.
  • 自分(じぶん)()でいる地域(ちいき)における井戸(いど)(みず)汚染(おせん)について研究(けんきゅう)ている
    I am doing research regarding pollution in wells in the area that I am living in.
  • これこの工事(こうじ)においての(むずか)しい作業(さぎょう)になります。
    This is the most difficult work in terms of this construction.
  • 田舎(いなか)における高齢化(こうれいか)問題(もんだい)深刻(しんこく)です
    The aging population in the countryside is very serious.
においての (and における) are primarily used in formal language, and will not commonly be used in daily speech.
Fun Fact
(ああ) is quite an interesting kanji, and has a meaning similar to 'within the scope of'. Basically, it highlights all possible things that exist within a given topic/space. This is what enables the very broad range of meanings that においての and における may be used for.
  • 日本(にほん)においての電車(でんしゃ)バスなし生活(せいかつ)(かんが)えられない
    Within the scope of Japan, it is impossible to think of a life without buses or trains.
  • 会社(かいしゃ)においての、パワハラについてミーティング(おこな)われた。
    A meeting was held regarding power harassment within the scope of our company.




    In this day and age, it is impossible to think of life without electricity.


    A meeting concerning the environment will take place in Tokyo.


    Acme Corporation products are top grade in terms of price, but poor in terms of product quality.


    In daily life, I have gathered everything necessary.


    I think this kanji is read 'kara' rather than 'sora' in this context.

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において・における – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (19 in total)

  • Daru


    Could you provide more feedback around what’s confusing you with the hints?

  • Madsgeltingbech


    Can anybody help me to understand why I cannot use の点で for the following sentence? The correct answer is supposed to be において.

  • Dwrlesky


    I also have a question about that same sentence.

    In my case I tried to use で言うと but it’s wrong. I was thinking along the lines “Speaking in numbers, we are fewer, but speaking in strength we won’t lose”.

    I guess I’m misunderstanding something? Also no idea why の点で is not useable.

    Some clarification would be much appreciated.

    • I thought about it again an 数で言うとは sounds kind of weird to me because of the は. Could I use it if the は is dropped?

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