Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 3: 2/13

In, At, To, For, On

Noun +
Part of Speech Particle
Word Type Case Marking Particle
Register Standard
品詞 助詞
単語の種類 格助詞
使用域 一般
can be a very difficult particle to master in Japanese, as it has many different translations in English. These translations are usually ‘in’, ‘at’, ‘to’, ‘for’, or ‘on’. Let’s look at an example of each meaning.
  • 彼(かれ)部屋(へや)ます
    He is in his room. (に as ‘in’)
  • 私(わたし)家(いえ)ます
    I'm at home. (に as ‘at’)
  • 公園(こうえん)行(い)
    To go to the park. (に as ‘to’)
  • 私(わたし)誕生日(たんじょうび)ケーキ食(た)べ
    I will eat cake for my birthday. (に as ‘for’)
  • バス乗(の)
    To ride on the bus. (に as ‘on’)
While these examples may seem quite confusing at first, it will be easier to think of as always having one ‘basic’ meaning. That meaning is to be the ‘end-point’ of an action. This means that whatever action is being described, can only be considered complete/able to be completed once you’re at/while you’re at the location/time described in the sentence.
  • マンション住(す)
    To live in an apartment.
  • 旅館(りょかん)泊(と)ま
    To stay at a hostel.
Verbs like 住(す)む (to live/dwell) often confuse learners, as they use instead of . This is also due to the fact that 住(す)む is a verb that can only be ‘completed’ at the destination. (You can only complete the act of living/dwelling in the place that you live, so to speak).
Slow Male
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He is at that place over there.
To place a book on this place (here).
To sit on this desk.
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