Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 6: 8/13


(Quotation) Phrase + + Verb(*)

Verb + + Verb(*)
[い]Adjective + + Verb(*)
[な]Adjective + () + + Verb(*)
Noun + () + + Verb(*)

(*) Verbs like 言う、聞く、思う、考える、仮定する and the like are used
Part of Speech Particle
Word Type Case Marking Particle
Register Standard
品詞 助詞
単語の種類 格助詞
使用域 一般
One of the regular functions of in Japanese is as a quotation particle. This use is called 引用(いんよう) in Japanese, which basically translates as ‘reference’, or ‘citation’. This way of using can appear after almost any type of word (or phrase), but requires when used after nouns or な-Adjectives.
  • 先生(せんせい)「危(あぶ)ない!」叫(さけ)ん
    The teacher yelled, ‘Watch out!’
  • 木村(きむら)さん「3キロ歩(ある)い言(い)っ
    Kimura san said, ‘I walked 3 km.’
  • あれ猫(ねこ)思(おも)う。
    I think that is a cat.
  • 富士山(ふじさん)綺麗(きれい)思(おも)
    Do you think that Mt. Fuji is beautiful?
as a quotation marker will almost always be followed by a verb that shows what type of ‘quote’ it is. This can be words like 言(い)う, 思(おも)う, 考(かんが)える, 聞(き)く, etc. However, at the end of a sentence, the verb will often be omitted.
  • 生徒(せいと)先生(せんせい)「何(なん)で?」
    The students asked the teacher, ‘Why?’
As with other instances of the particle being used, this use simply expresses the relationship between (A) ‘what was communicated’, and (B) ‘how it was communicated’.
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I heard that he is very friendly.
I wrote, 'I am going to school now' on a note.
I asked, 'Is he coming here?'
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 193
みんなの日本語 I
Page 134 [CH 21]
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 153