N5 Lesson 9: 9/13
なくてはならない なくてはならない must do, have to do If you are curious about なくて conjugation
Structure
Casual
Formal
Verb[ない+ なくては + ならない
Verb[ない+ なくちゃ + ならない
Verb[ない+ なくては + なりません
Verb[ない+ なくちゃ + なりません
Details
No detail information for なくてはならない
Information
Much like てはならない, なくてはならない states that something ‘must not’ be done. However, this is where the similarities end. なくてはならない is an example of a double negative in Japanese, and actually has the meaning ‘(A) must be done’, or ‘must do (A)’.
While this grammar point is usually translated as ‘must do’, the literal translation is ‘must not, not do (A)’. This double ‘not’ is where many learners have difficulties. ならない simply means ‘cannot become’, and comes from the negative form of なる. To use this structure, simply create the negative form of a verb, and then convert ない to なく (the conjunctive form of an い-Adjective), followed by . After this, is added, and then finally ならない.
  • 私(わたし)次(つぎ)バス停(てい)降(お)りなくてはならないです
    I have to get off at the next bus stop.
  • トムタカお金(かね)返(かえ)さなくてはならないです
    Tom must give back money to Taka.
  • 今日(きょう)漢字(かんじ)勉強(べんきょう)なくてはならないです
    I have to study kanji today.
ならない is considered to be the most formal structure out of ならない, いけない, and だめ. It is regularly used in formal writing, or semi-formal/formal speech. いけない (the most common variation) and だめ (the most casual variation) are also acceptable in many situations.
  • レポート書(か)かなくてはいけない
    I must write a paper.
  • 食(た)べ前(まえ)に手(て)洗(あら)わなくてはダメ
    You must wash your hands before you eat.
Caution: The ては in なくては is often converted to ちゃ, as this is easier to say. なくちゃ may then be followed by ならない. However, due to ならない being quite formal, なくちゃ (a casual structure) will not be used with ならない on a regular basis. It is more common to see なくちゃ paired with いけない, or だめ.
  • 今日(きょう)沢山(たくさん)走(はし)ったからシャワー浴(あ)びなくちゃならない
    Because I ran a lot today, I must take a shower.
  • バーベキュー肉(にく)持(も)っ行(い)かなくちゃいけない
    I must bring meat to the barbeque.
  • 冬(ふゆ)なる前(まえ)にキャンプ行(い)かなくちゃだめ
    We must go camping before it becomes winter, don't we.
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3時半(じはん)までに、銀行(ぎんこう)行(い)かなくてはならない
By 3:30, I have to go to the bank.
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Books
Tobira
Page 43
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 142