Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 1: 12/18

なくて (Sequence)
To not ~ and ~, Not ~ and ~ (conjugations)

Structure
Verb[ない+ な + くて
[い]Adjective[ない + な + くて
[な]Adjective + では(1)ない + な + くて
Noun + では(1)ない + な + くて

Exceptions:
いい → よく
するくて
くるくて

(1) じゃ
Details
Register Standard
使用域 一般
Information
In Japanese, なくて is a construction that combines ない (in its conjugation form, なく), with the 接続助詞(せつぞくじょし) . This results in the same ‘and’ meaning as the standard form, but with the negative meaning of ない. なくて can be translated as ‘to not (A), and…’, or ‘not (A), and…’, depending on what type of word it is used with.
  • お金(かね)なくて車(くるま)買(か)えない
    I dont have money, and I can't buy a car.
  • あのケーキ甘(あま)くなくてまずです
    That cake is not sweet, and tastes bad. ( is frequently added between the stem form of adjectives and ない. Often, this is just for emphasis)
  • 私(わたし)車(くるま) 静(しず)かなくてガソリン減(へ)り早(はや)
    My car is not quiet, and runs out of gas quickly.
  • あれ 犬(いぬ)なくて猫(ねこ)ないです
    That is not a dog, and not a cat either.
As discussed in our initial lesson about ない, there are two forms of this particular word. One form is a 助動詞(じょどうし) (auxiliary verb), and is used with verbs. The other form of ない is a 形容詞(けいようし) (い-Adjective), and is used with nouns, な-Adjectives, and い-Adjectives.
The difference between these two, is that the い-Adjective form may have in between it and the word it is connected to (では in the case of nouns and な-Adjectives). With verbs, due to ない being a 助動詞(じょどうし), this is not possible.
  • この風呂(ふろ)汚(よご)れなくて、いつもいい匂(によ)いする
    This bath is not dirty, so it always smells good. (Unnatural Japanese, as will never come between a verb and ない)
  • この風呂(ふろ)汚(よご)れなくて、いつもいい匂(によ)いする
    This bath doesnt get dirty, and it always smells good. (Natural Japanese)
Caution
なくて is very similar to ないで, another structure that is regularly used with verbs (but may not be used with nouns or adjectives). ないで is far more common when expressing ‘not doing’ something, while なくて tends to be used almost exclusively for expressing reasons/causes.
  • トーマスまだプレゼントあげないで
    Please don't give Thomas his present yet. (No particular reason, simply implies ‘without doing’)
  • もらクッキー弟(おとうと)あげなくて、妹(いもうと)あげ
    I did not give the cookie I got to my brother, but to my sister. (Implies a specific reason for not giving it to the brother)
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なるならなくて
to become → to not become and...
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嫌(きら)い嫌(きら)いではなくて
dislike → not dislike and...
[Some な-Adjectives end with い, but 嫌い is the most misleading one since other い-ending な-adjectives, like 綺麗 or 安静, are completely written with kanji]
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病気(びょうき)病気(びょうき)じゃなくて
illness → not an illness and...
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