Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 1: 12/18

なくて (Sequence)

To not ~ and ~, Not ~ and ~ (Conjugations)

Structure

Verb[ない+ な + くて
[い]Adjective[ない + な + くて
[な]Adjective + では(1)ない + な + くて
Noun + では(1)ない + な + くて

Exceptions:
いい → よく
するくて
くるくて

(1) じゃ

Details

  • Register

    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About なくて

In Japanese, なくて is a construction that combines ない (in its conjugation form, なく), with the conjunction particle . This results in the same 'and' meaning as the standard form, but with the negative meaning of ない. なくて can be translated as 'to not (A), and…', or 'not (A), and…', depending on what type of word it is used with.
  • (かね)なくて(くるま)()ない
    I don't have money, and I can't buy a car.
  • あのケーキ(あま)なくてまずです
    That cake is not sweet, and tastes bad. ( is frequently added between the stem form of adjectives and ない. Often, this is just for emphasis)
  • (わたし)(くるま)(しず)なくてガソリン()(はや)
    My car is not quiet, and runs out of gas quickly.
  • あれ(いぬ)なくて(ねこ)ないです
    That is not a dog, and not a cat either.
As discussed in our initial lesson about ない, there are two forms of this particular word. One form is an auxiliary verb, and is used with verbs. The other form of ない is an い-Adjective (形容詞(けいようし)), and is used with nouns, な-Adjectives, and い-Adjectives.
The difference between these two, is that the い-Adjective form may have in between it and the word it is connected to (では in the case of nouns and な-Adjectives). With verbs, due to ない being an auxiliary verb, this is not possible.
  • この風呂(ふろ)(よご)なくて、いつもいい(によ)する
    This bath is not dirty, so it always smells good. (Unnatural Japanese, as will never come between a verb and ない)
  • この風呂(ふろ)(よご)なくて、いつもいい(によ)する
    This bath doesn't get dirty, and it always smells good. (Natural Japanese)
Caution
なくて is very similar to ないで, another structure that is regularly used with verbs (but may not be used with nouns or adjectives). ないで is far more common when expressing 'not doing' something, while なくて tends to be used almost exclusively for expressing reasons/causes.
  • トーマスまだプレゼントあげないで
    Please don't give Thomas his present yet. (No particular reason, simply implies 'without doing')
  • もらクッキー(おとうと)あげなくて(いもうと)あげ
    I did not give the cookie I got to my brother, but to my sister. (Implies a specific reason for not giving it to the brother)

Examples

  • なるならなくて

    to become → to not become and...

  • (きら)(きら)ではなくて

    dislike → not dislike and...

    Some な-Adjectives end in い, but 嫌い and 幸い are the most misleading since they are not completely written in kanji like 綺麗 or 安静.

  • 病気(びょうき)病気(びょうき)じゃなくて

    illness → not an illness and...

  • (たか)(たか)なくて

    expensive/tall → not expensive/tall and...

  • いいよくなくて

    good → not good and...

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なくて – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (9 in total)

  • mrnoone

    mrnoone

    About 2 years ago

    @Superpnut
    Hey!
    You can think of じゃ as casual contraction of では.
    Just like ではない and じゃない.

    You might also see でなくて without は, which is also correct .

    Cheers

    PS
    You can see information like this in the structure section:

  • Superpnut

    Superpnut

    About 2 years ago

    OOOHH okay I didn’t know what the numbers really showed. I think I get it now I’m just a bit slow

  • winningtofu

    winningtofu

    About 1 month ago

    image909×103 9.32 KB

    hey so can’t 汚れ technicall...

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