Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 1: 14/18

Without doing, Not ~ and ~

Register Standard
使用域 一般
There are two primary ways in which ないで is used with verbs in Japanese. The first is to express ‘without doing (A), (B)’. The second is to request that someone ‘not do (A)’. We will examine the first in this write-up.
ないで is a combination of the auxiliary verb ない, and the particle . Due to this, keeps its standard meaning of ‘with/by’, in relation to ‘not’ doing something.
  • 魚(さかな)焼(や)かない食(た)べから、お腹(なか)壊(こわ)し
    Since I ate fish without cooking it, I got a stomach ache. (Literally, to break one’s stomach)
  • アミドアカギかけない寝(ね)の?危(あぶ)ない
    Ami, you sleep without locking your doors? That's dangerous.
When ないで is used to express that ‘(A) has not been done before doing (B)’, this is usually contrary to some kind of expectation. Because of this, ないで is often used to express something that may be surprising to the listener.
  • 上司(じょうし)に伝(つた)えないで休(やす)んだの!?
    You took the day off without notifying your boss!?
Slow Male
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To work without taking a break.
"I want to live without regret."
"That person left the toilet without washing their hands!"
Genki II 1st Edition
Page 161
みんなの日本語 I
Page 110 [CH 17]
Genki II 2nd Edition
Page 191
みんなの日本語 II
Page 60 [CH 34]
Marugoto Elementary 2 (A2) Rikai
Page 108
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 271
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 279
[AIAIJ] An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese
Page 35