There are two primary ways in which ないで
is used with verbs in Japanese. The first is to express ‘without doing (A), (B)’. The second is to request that someone ‘not do (A)’. We will examine the first in this write-up.
is a combination of the auxiliary verb ない, and the particle で
. Due to this, で
keeps its standard meaning of ‘with/by’, in relation to ‘not’ doing something.
Since I ate fish without cooking it, I got a stomach ache. (Literally, to break one’s stomach)
Ami, you sleep without locking your doors? That's dangerous.
is used to express that ‘(A) has not been done before doing (B)’, this is usually contrary to some kind of expectation. Because of this, ないで is often used to express something that may be surprising to the listener.