Grammar Info
N3 Lesson 1: 15/23

による
by means of, according to, depending on, because of, due to

Structure
Noun + によって
Noun + により
Details
Register Standard
使用域 一般
Information
によって, による, and により are all different versions of the same expression, that can basically be translated as ‘according to (A)’, or ‘depending on (A)’. This uses the same よる as seen in the grammar pattern によると. They will be used in the following way:
によって - Generally used before a comma (although not always). Acts as the separation point between the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence. Made up of the 格助詞(かくじょし) (case marking particle) , and the う - Verb よる in its て form.
による - Generally used at the end of a sentence, to highlight that the previous statement depends on (A).
により - Almost always used before a comma. Acts as the separation point between the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence. Made up of the 格助詞(かくじょし) (case marking particle) , and the う - Verb よる in its 連用形(れんようけい) (conjunctive form).
To use any of these constructions, attach them to the end of a noun that you want to express as being the ‘dependent’ thing.
  • 地域(ちいき)によって、ゴミ出(だ)しルール違(ちが)う。
    Depending on the area, the rules for throwing out garbage are different.
  • 行(い)けるか行(い)けないかは休(やす)み取(と)れるか取(と)れないによる
    Whether I can go or not depends on if I can take a day off.
  • ベンおじさんは強盗(ごうとう)により、命(いのち)奪(うば)われた。
    Uncle Ben's life was taken by a robber.
Caution
による may also sometimes be followed by a noun. In these cases, it will become a verb modified noun, and highlight that (B) resulted from (A).
  • このミスはヒューマンエラーによるものです
    This mistake is caused by human error.
  • この地震(じしん)による津波(つなみ)心配(しんぱい)はありません
    There is no need to worry about a tsunami brought about from this earthquake.
Fun Fact
Although よる is almost always written in hiragana, there are several different kanji that use this reading. They all share similar meanings. Learn more about this in the によると grammar point.
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アメリカでは州(しゅう)によって法律(ほうりつ)が違(ちが)う
In America, laws differ depending on the state.
Noun + によって違う is a common construction.
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その車(くるま)の値段(ねだん)によって、決(き)めます。
I will choose depending on the price of that car.
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国(くに)によって、いろいろな伝統(でんとう)があります
There are a variety of traditions depending on the country.
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Books
みんなの日本語 II
Page 108 [CH 42]
Tobira
Page 191
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 273
[AIAIJ] An Integrated Approach to Intermediate Japanese
Page 39