Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 1: 14/22


By means of, According to, Depending on, Because of, Due to


Noun + によって
Noun + により


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About によって・による

によって, による, and により are all different versions of the same expression, that can basically be translated as 'according to (A)', or 'depending on (A)'. This uses the same よる as seen in the grammar pattern によると. They will be used in the following way:
によって - Generally used before a comma (although not always). Acts as the separation point between the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence. Made up of the case marking particle , and the う - Verb よる in its て form.
による - Generally used at the end of a sentence, to highlight that the previous statement depends on (A).
により - Almost always used before a comma. Acts as the separation point between the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence. Made up of the case marking particle , and the う - Verb よる in its conjunctive form.
To use any of these constructions, attach them to the end of a noun that you want to express as being the 'dependent' thing.
  • 地域(ちいき)によって、ゴミ()しルール(ちが)う。
    Depending on the area, the rules for throwing out garbage are different.
  • ()けるか()ないかは(やす)()れるか()ないによる
    Whether I can go or not depends on if I can take a day off.
  • ベンおじさんは強盗(ごうとう)により(いのち)(うば)われた。
    Uncle Ben's life was taken by a robber.
による may also sometimes be followed by a noun. In these cases, it will become a verb modified noun, and highlight that (B) resulted from (A).
  • このミスはヒューマンエラーによるものです
    This mistake is caused by human error.
  • この地震(じしん)による津波(つなみ)心配(しんぱい)ありません
    There is no need to worry about a tsunami brought about from this earthquake.
Fun Fact
Although よる is almost always written in hiragana, there are several different kanji that use this reading. They all share similar meanings. Learn more about this in the によると grammar point.


  • アメリカでは(しゅう)によって法律(ほうりつ)(ちが)

    In America, laws differ depending on the state.

    Noun + によって違う is a common construction.

  • その(くるま)値段(ねだん)によって()めます。

    I will choose depending on the price of that car.

  • (くに)によって、いろいろな伝統(でんとう)あります

    There are a variety of traditions depending on the country.

  • 調査(ちょうさ)によって(あら)たな事実(じじつ)(あき)らかになった。

    Through research, a new truth was discovered.

    明らかになる means 'to find out' or 'to discover'.

  • 納豆(なっとう)()どうかは(ひと)による

    It depends on the person whether they like natto or not.

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によって・による – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (12 in total)

  • Melanthe


    I believe Shin Kanzen Master presents this grammar point as three distinct usages:

  • Rage0441


    in 中級へ行こう I

  • Daru


    Rather than an exclusion or new use, it’s really just a use of the grammar point.

    “It was made by the means of” becomes the basic meaning!

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