Grammar Info

N3 Lesson 4: 4/21


Depends on, Changes depending on, Differ depending on


Phrase + かどうか + Noun + によって(ちが)(1)
WH-Word + A(2) + + Noun + によって(ちが)(1)
A(2) + B(2) + Noun + によって(ちが)(1)

(1) による
(2) [い]Adjective[な]Adjective、Verb、Noun


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About 〜かは〜によって違う

~かは~によって(ちが) is an expression in Japanese that appears quite complex at first, but is actually quite simple when broken down into its parts. かは is a combination of the case marking particle か in its role as a quotation, paired with the adverbial particle は, highlighting the topic of the sentence. Together these can be translated as 'whether (A)'.
によって(ちが) is made up of the case marking particle (highlighting a location), the て form of よる (a う - Verb), followed by (ちが)う 'to differ', (another う - Verb).
All together, this can be translated as '(A) depends on (B)'. More accurately though, the meaning is 'whether (A) will differ depending on (B)'. かは is regularly used after an entire phrase, followed by a noun and then によって(ちが).
  • 日本(にほん)()(きら)かは(ひと)によって(ちが)
    Whether they like Japan or not depends on the person.
  • (さけ)()んで(はだ)(あか)くなるかならないかは体質(たいしつ)によって(ちが)
    Whether someone's skin will turn red or not after drinking depends on the person.
  • (かわ)(なが)(はや)いか(おそ)いかは場所(ばしょ)によって(ちが)
    Whether the river flows fast or slow depends on the location.
Alternatively, かどうか may be used instead of かは. This changes the nuance from 'whether (A)', to 'whether or not (A)'. When translated directly, かどうか is quite similar to 'whether (A) or however'.
  • (じゅう)簡単(かんたん)()えるかどうか(くに)によって(ちが)
    Whether you can easily buy a gun or not depends on the country.
  • この(わざ)(すご)かどうか()(ひと)によって(ちが)
    Whether this trick is amazing or not depends on who judges.
Finally, this expression may also be seen without (ちが)う. In a sentence like this, 'differs' is simply removed, becoming 'whether (A) will depend on (B)'. As conjugation between the verbs is no longer required, によって will become による.
  • 今日(きょう)(はや)(かえ)れるか(かえ)ないかは仕事(しごと)(すす)具合(ぐあい)よる
    Whether I can go home early or not today will depend on how work goes.
  • 納豆(なっとう)()べられるか()べられないかは(ひと)(この)よる
    Whether or not a person can eat natto will depend on what they like.




    It depends on the person, whether they like music or not.


    Whether fruit is expensive or not changes depending on the season.


    Whether something is good or not depends on each person's personal opinion.


    Whether there are school uniforms or not differs depending on the school, but they are pretty ordinary.


    The age at which one can retire differs depending on the country.

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〜かは〜によって違う – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (4 in total)

  • mrnoone




    I have changed it according to the suggestion!

  • Pep95


  • mrnoone



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