Grammar Info
N2 Lesson 8: 16/22

tendency, trend, inclination

Verb[る](1) + 傾向
[い]Adjective + 傾向
[な]Adjective + + 傾向
Noun + + 傾向

(1) Verb[た]
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使用域 硬い
傾向(けいこう)がある is a slightly formal grammar pattern used when indicating that there is some sort of ‘trend’ or ‘tendency’ existing within (A). Being a combination of the noun 傾向(けいこう) ‘inclination’, and がある ‘to have’, the literal meaning is almost identical to the standard English interpretation.
As 傾向(けいこう) itself is a noun, this structure may appear after verbs, い-Adjectives, な-Adjectives followed by な, and nouns followed by の.
  • この国(くに)では首都(しゅと)に近(ちか)づけば近(ちか)づくほど物価(ぶっか)が上(あ)がっていく傾向(けいこう)がある
    In this country, there is a tendency of prices rising as you get closer to the capital.
  • 鬱(うつ)で悩(なや)まされている人(ひと)は気分(きぶん)の浮(う)き沈(しず)みが激(はげ)しい傾向(けいこう)がある
    People suffering from depression are inclined to have severe mood swings.
  • あの会社(かいしゃ)が発売(はつばい)する教科書(きょうかしょ)は使(つか)いやすくてユニークな傾向(けいこう)があると言(い)われている。
    It is said that textbooks released by that company have a tendency to be user-friendly and unique.
  • 最近(さいきん)は世界中(せかいじゅう)で小家族化(しょうかぞくか)の傾向(けいこう)がある
    Recently, there has been a trend toward smaller families around the world.
Although がある is the most frequent structure seen with 傾向(けいこう), alternatives such as が見(み)られる ‘the trend of (A) can be observed’ are also widely used.
  • 最近(さいきん)ではコンピューターやスマホが文字(もじ)を自動(じどう)変換(へんかん)してくれるので、漢字(かんじ)の書(か)き方(かた)を忘(わす)れてしまう傾向(けいこう)が見(み)られる
    Recently, computers and smartphones automatically convert characters, so people tend to forget how to write kanji characters.
It should also be noted that 傾向(けいこう)がある may be used both in instances where the trend is either positve or negative.
Caution - 傾向(けいこう)がある tends to express behaviors or characteristics (static things that aren’t actively changing), while 傾向(けいこう)にある focuses more on being in a state of something that is ongoing or proceeding in a certain direction, such as a declining trend.
  • 日本(にほん)は少子化(しょうしか)の傾向(けいこう)にある
    Japan is experiencing a declining birthrate.
  • この研究(けんきゅう)によると、勤務(きんむ)時間(じかん)が短(みじか)いほうが仕事(しごと)の効率(こうりつ)がよくなる傾向(けいこう)にあるようだ。
    According to this study, shorter work hours tend to improve work efficiency.
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The demand for high-end smartphones has been in a declining trend recently.
Adults have a tendency to think that no matter what, their opinion is correct.
[傾向が見られる and 傾向がある are used to express basically the same thing]
People have a strong inclination to unconsciously judge others by appearance.
[傾向が強い is widely used to express a strong trend. Can be rephrased to 強い傾向がある]
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