Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 4: 6/13

To come

Part of Speech Verb
Word Type Independent Word
Register Standard
品詞 動詞
単語の種類 自立語
使用域 一般
来(く)る is one of only two verbs in Japanese that do not follow the standard rules of conjugation for Godan and Ichidan verbs. The other primary verb being する. 来(く)る means ‘to come’, or ‘to be coming’.
  • お前(まえ)パーティー来(く)る
    Will you come to the party too?
  • サヤ家(いえ)来(き)ている
    I have come to Saya's house. (I'm at Saya's house now)
来(く)る will always have the particle or attached to the location that someone ‘will come’, or ‘has come’.
The reason that 来(く)る is called a か-column irregular conjugation verb in Japanese is because the る in 来(く)る does not conjugate, but is dropped. This leaves the く being the part that conjugates. Because of this, 来る has qualities of both る-Verbs (the る being dropped), and う-Verbs (the remaining く changing depending on the conjugation). Here are some examples of how 来(く)る changes.
(き)た, (く)る, (こ)ない
来(く)る will often be seen as 来(き)ている when someone has come to a place and remains there. This is due to ている meaning ‘to exist in the state of an action’, rather than being exactly the same as ‘(A)~ing’ in English. Because of this, 来(き)ている can mean either ‘to be somewhere that one has come’, or ‘to be coming’.
  • 今(いま)、駅(えき)来(き)ている
    I have come to the station. (I am at the station now)
  • カナ駅(えき)来(き)ている
    Is Kana coming to the station? (Is Kana on her way to the station now?)
Sometimes the difference between these two will not be clear unless there is further context.
来(き)ている (for existing at a place) is only used for places that people ‘temporarily’ go, so will not be used when you are at your home/work.
Slow Male
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Tom will come here.
The bus will come.
He will come by bus.
Japanese Language Guide
Self Taught Japanese
Genki I
Page 59
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 89
みんなの日本語 I
Page 38 [CH 5]
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 219