is generally taught as part of a set of 3 verbs that are regularly used for giving and receiving in Japanese. These verbs are くれる
, and もらう
means ‘to give’ (to you, or someone that is part of your ‘in’ group).
My grandmother always gives me candy.
Every year, my girlfriend gives me a letter.
My mother gives me cookies everyday.
, they both function in the regular way you would expect (regarding particles). This means that が
will always mark the giver (the person performing the action), and に
will mark the recipient (the person that is the ‘destination’ of the thing that is given). This means that を
will be used to mark the ‘object’ that is given, as is usually the case.
The giver/recipient are often omitted from sentences with くれる
, as one/both are usually obvious from context, or the sentence may be focussing on the object.
As can be seen here, the same nuance is kept, even when things are omitted.
What someone considers their ‘in’ group will be different for each person, but usually consists of members of your family, clubs that you are in, or something similar that has a ‘group’ atmosphere (that you are a part of).
The giver will always be someone that is more distant than the people that are in the ‘group’.
When the neighbors return home from traveling, they give my father souvenirs.
The teacher gave flowers to my club member, Toshiko-chan.
When we want to say that we (or someone else) gave something to someone that is not in our ‘in’ group, we will need to use あげる instead.