Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 10: 9/12

To give (me), To be given

For both くれる and あげる, に marks the recipient

Giver(*)(1) + Recipient(*) + Object(*)くれる

Recipient(*) + Giver(*)(1) + Object(*)くれる

Giver(*)(1) + Object(*) + Recipient(*)くれる

(*) Giver
Recipent and Object are Nouns
Giver(*)(1) + Recipient(*) + Object(*)くれます

Recipient(*) + Giver(*)(1) + Object(*)くれます

Giver(*)(1) + Object(*) + Recipient(*)くれます

(*) Giver
Recipent and Object are Nouns
Part of Speech Verb
Word Type Independent Word
Register Standard
品詞 動詞
単語の種類 自立語
使用域 一般
くれる is generally taught as part of a set of 3 verbs that are regularly used for giving and receiving in Japanese. These verbs are くれる, あげる, and もらう. くれる means ‘to give’ (to you, or someone that is part of your ‘in’ group).
  • おばあちゃんいつもお菓子(かし)くれる
    My grandmother always gives me candy.
  • 毎年(まいとし)、彼女(かのじょ)手紙(てがみ)くれる
    Every year, my girlfriend gives me a letter.
  • 母(はは)毎日(まいにち)私(わたし)クッキーくれる
    My mother gives me cookies everyday.
With くれる and あげる, they both function in the regular way you would expect (regarding particles). This means that will always mark the giver (the person performing the action), and will mark the recipient (the person that is the ‘destination’ of the thing that is given). This means that will be used to mark the ‘object’ that is given, as is usually the case.
The giver/recipient are often omitted from sentences with くれる, as one/both are usually obvious from context, or the sentence may be focussing on the object.
  • 嫁(よめ)プレゼントくれ
    My wife gave me a present.
  • 私(わたし)プレゼントくれ
    A present was given to me.
As can be seen here, the same nuance is kept, even when things are omitted.
Fun Fact
What someone considers their ‘in’ group will be different for each person, but usually consists of members of your family, clubs that you are in, or something similar that has a ‘group’ atmosphere (that you are a part of).
The giver will always be someone that is more distant than the people that are in the ‘group’.
  • 近所(きんじょ)人(ひと)旅行(りょこう)から帰(かえ)っ来(き)、父(ちち)お土産(みやげ)くれ
    When the neighbors return home from traveling, they give my father souvenirs.
  • 先生(せんせい)クラブ仲間(なかま)としこちゃん花(はな)くれ
    The teacher gave flowers to my club member, Toshiko-chan.
When we want to say that we (or someone else) gave something to someone that is not in our ‘in’ group, we will need to use あげる instead.
Slow Male
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My mom gave me a cool pen.
I was given a cool pen from my mom.
My brother gave me a convenient box.
[I was given a convenient box from my older brother.]
My grandpa gave me an old bicycle.
[I was given an old bicycle from my grandpa.]
Genki II 2nd Edition
Page 56
みんなの日本語 I
Page 152 [CH 24]
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 213
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 213
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 171