Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 10: 16/18

to be considered, to be deemed, be regarded as, be accepted as, to be said, to be accredited with

Verb + されている
[い]Adjective + されている
[な]Adjective + () + されている
Noun + () + されている
Verb + されています
[い]Adjective + されています
[な]Adjective + () + されています
Noun + () + されています
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使用域 一般
とされている is an expression that is commonly translated as ‘to be considered as (A)’, or ‘to be regarded as (A)’. Conceptually, it is similar to にする, which means ‘to decide on (A)’. However, due to する being in the passive form in this construction, it is closer to ‘to be decided on’, and expresses the general opinions/thoughts of large groups of people.
The in this expression is a 格助詞(かくじょし) (case-marking particle) and expresses the 結果(けっか) ‘result’ nuance of this particle.
  • 今(いま)時(じ)代(だい)インターネット必要(ひつよう)とされている
    In current times, the internet is widely considered to be necessary.
  • これ二コラテスラ発明(はつめい)したものとされている
    This is considered to be something invented by Nikola Tesla.
The main difference between as a 格助詞(かくじょし) (case-marking particle) and as a 接続助詞(せつぞくじょし) (conjunction particle) is that the case-marking particle will always link a single word/phrase to one specific word/result. The conjunction particle on the other hand, will often be followed by a 読点(とうてん) (Japanese comma), as it is separating two distinct thoughts within the sentence, rather than just a simple ‘result’.
  • 水(みず)氷(こおり)
    Water becomes ice. (As a result of transformation, water will be ice)
  • 温度(おんど)0度(ど)、水(みず)氷(こおり)
    If the temperature is 0 degrees, it results in water becoming ice.
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Essay/article: "The number 13 is considered unlucky by the Polish."
Dissertation: "Sweeteners are deemed to not be the source of cancer, but more research is needed."
Dissertation: 'With time, jazz came to be widely accepted as "America’s classical music" rather than "the music of the devil".'
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