Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 10: 15/18


Is considered, Is thought of as


Phrase + (かんが)えられている
Phrase + (おも)われている


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About とかんがえられている

In its citation usage, the case marking particle is often used with verbs in the passive form. Two of these regularly occurring verbs are (かんが)えられている 'to be considered', and (おも)われている 'to be thought'.
This grammar point is used after a phrase, and translates as 'it is considered that (A)', or 'it is thought that (A)'. It is generally used to highlight a commonly held opinion that most people agree on (not your personal opinion).
  • 最初(さいしょ)グー」最初(さいしょ)()志村(しむら)けん(かんが)えられている
    Shimura Ken is considered to be the first person who said 'saisho wa gu'. (A phrase said before playing rock, paper, scissors, in Japan)
  • このトンネル日本(にほん)一番(いちばん)(のろ)われているトンネル(おも)われている
    This tunnel is thought to be one of the most cursed tunnels in Japan.
The primary reason that these constructions are used in their displacement (passive) form, is to show that the thought itself is not something that is related to the speaker's own opinions.
However, people will often use this form as a way to strengthen their own opinions, in a similar way to how English speakers would say 'everyone knows that (A)'.
  • カバ世界(せかい)(もっと)(あぶ)動物(どうぶつ)(かんが)えられている
    Everyone knows that hippos are the most dangerous animal in the world.


  • 英語(えいご)アメリカだけでなく世界(せかい)(じゅう)使(つか)われる言語(げんご)(だ)(かんが)えられている

    English is considered a worldly language, not only used in America.

  • 日本語(にほんご)(もっと)(むずか)しい言語(げんご)(ひと)(おも)われている

    Japanese is thought of as one of the most difficult languages.

  • (わたし)(こわ)(おも)わない、サメ(もっと)(あぶ)ない動物(どうぶつ)(かんが)えられている

    I don't think (they) are scary, but sharks are considered to be extremely dangerous animals.

  • イルカとても(かしこ)(かんが)えられている

    Dolphins are considered to be very intelligent.

  • この(まち)海賊(かいぞく)()んでいた(かんが)えられている

    It is thought that pirates used to live in this town.

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とかんがえられている – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (7 in total)

  • wrt7MameLZE33wlmpCAV


    There is an informational note in the と考えられる entry indicating that と思られる is more subjective. The notes can be easy to overlook, though, so don’t feel bad if you missed it at first. The verbs also have a bit of a nuance difference to them as well. 思う means basically, “to think,” but is also used more subjectively, so it can also translate as, “to feel.” 考える on the other hand means something more like, “to think over, to consider.” There can be a deeper contemplation implied by 考える over 思う, which suggests a more rational, objective assessment. That being said, both verbs have many senses and a wide range of uses.

  • ShinobiTay


    I also want to know the difference and no one has said…

  • 11442



    I’m just curious, is there a reason why the だ is optional here? (compared to seemingly similar uses of the と particle I’ve learned before)

    Is that だ logically there regardless in this case or truly optional? Does it shift nuance at all?

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