Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 2: 9/24


Once, Since, Now that, As long as

Formal! Rarely used in modern Japanese (old-fashioned)
Use からには and 以上は instead.


Verb[る] + (うえ)
Verb[た] + (うえ)


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About 上は

A fairly old-fashioned phrase, (うえ) highlights that something is being done or considered as a result of (A). It may be interpreted as 'once (A), (B)', 'since (A), (B)', 'now that (A), (B)', or 'as long as (A), (B)'. In these meanings, (B) will always be something that is deemed as either obvious or necessary.
(うえ) in this phrase is a noun, and will be attached to the adverbial particle は. This creates a literal meaning that is similar to 'over and above (A), (B)'. This 'over and above' has a similar nuance to 'with that said', or 'all things considered' in English, and just presents (A) as something that is finalized.
This structure follows verbs in the standard form.
  • 一人(ひとり)()らしを(はじ)めた(うえ)家事(かじ)など料理(りょうり)自分(じぶん)全部(ぜんぶ)やらなくてはいけない。
    Now that I have started living alone, I must do all the housework and cooking on my own.
  • アイルランドに()むと()めた(うえ)、アイルランドの文化(ぶんか)などを勉強(べんきょう)しなければならない。
    Now that I have decided to live in Ireland, I must study things such as Irish culture.
  • この会社(かいしゃ)従業員(じゅうぎょういん)として(はたら)(うえ)きちんと()(しゃ)のルールを(まも)ってもらわないと(こま)ります。
    As long as you are working as an employee of this company, we need you to follow our rules.
Due to (うえ) being quite old-fashioned, expressions like からには or 以上(いじょう) will be heard more frequently in modern-day Japanese, and will carry a similar meaning.
  • ワンちゃんを保護(ほご)すると()めたからには最後(さいご)まで責任(せきにん)をもって(そだ)てなくてはいけない。
    Now that you have decided to adopt a puppy, you must take responsibility and raise it until the end.
  • 十分(じゅうぶん)証拠(しょうこ)がない以上(いじょう)(かれ)逮捕(たいほ)することができません。
    Since we don't have sufficient evidence, we can't arrest him.




    Now that I have come to Japan, I intend to study.


    Now that the child is raising a dog, they must take responsibility and mature.


    Since my blood pressure and liver functionality has gotten worse, I must have some sort of illness.


    Now that the politician, Yamamoto-san, made a promise in order to win elections, he should keep it. But in reality, it is not always the case.


    Once you start doing something, you have to do it properly.

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