Grammar Info

N2 Lesson 2: 2/24


As well, Besides, In addition to


Verb + (うえ)(に)
[い]Adjective + (うえ)(に)
[な]Adjective + (1) + (うえ)(に)
Noun + (1) + (うえ)(に)

(1) である


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About 上に

(うえ) is a grammar pattern that functions as a slightly formal way of saying 'and' in Japanese. It shows that something is 'in addition to (A)', 'as well as (A)', or 'besides (A)'. Literally, it simply shows that 'on top of (A), (B)'.
(うえ) may be used after that standard form of verbs and い-Adjectives, な-Adjectives followed by (うえ), and nouns followed by (うえ). Occasionally, the に may be dropped from this structure, without changing the meaning at all.
  • (わたし)(いぬ)子供(こども)()ると()える(うえ)()みつこうとするので子供(こども)には(ちか)づけさせないようにさせています。
    In addition to barking, my dog tries to bite children when he sees them, so I try not to let him get close to them.
  • (いえ)近所(きんじょ)にあるレストランはまずい(うえ)(たか)いからいつも()いている。
    The restaurant near my house is always empty because in addition to having bad food, they are expensive.
  • 高橋(たかはし)くんは無礼(ぶれい)(うえ)清潔感(せいけつかん)がないため、(まわ)りの(ひと)たちには()けられている。
    Takahashi-kun is rude as well as unhygienic, so he is avoided by the people around him.
  • 彼女(かのじょ)調理師免許(ちょうりしめんきょ)(うえ)健康食(けんこうしょく)アドバイザーの資格(しかく)()っているので、彼女(かのじょ)(つく)料理(りょうり)健康的(けんこうてき)美味(おい)しいです。
    In addition to having a chef's license, she also has qualification as a nutrition advisor, so the food she makes is healthy and delicious.
When it comes to な-Adjectives and nouns, it is also common to see である(うえ) used as a conjugation pattern.
  • あそこの(えき)不便(ふべん)である(うえ)利用者(りようしゃ)()っている(ため)来月(らいげつ)中旬(ちゅうじゅん)()(こわ)されるそうだ。
    I heard that the station over there is going to get torn down in the middle of next month because in addition to being inconvenient, it is losing users.
  • ケントさんは新聞記者(しんぶんきしゃ)である(うえ)スーパーヒーローでもあった。
    Kent-san was a newspaper reporter as well as a superhero.
Caution - (うえ) must always be used to highlight qualities of things that are equivalent to each other. For example, a good thing and another good thing, or a bad thing and another bad thing.
  • あの建築会社(けんちくがいしゃ)()てる(いえ)丈夫(じょうぶ)(うえ)洒落(しゃれ)なので、すごく人気(にんき)があるらしい。
    Apparently that building company is very popular right now because the houses they build are durable as well as stylish. (Natural Japanese)
  • (かれ)はハンサムな(うえ)失礼(しつれい)だから、あまりモテない。
    He is not very popular because in addition to being handsome, he is rude. (Unnatural Japanese)




    As well as being cheap, that gym is close to my house. (on top of that)


    I heard that restaurant changed its menu, in addition to being remodeled. (on top of)


    In addition to being easy, today's homework load was light. (on top of that)


    That person's explanation was vague, as well as inaccurate. (on top of that)


    If he drinks alcohol, in addition to being violent, he uses abusive language, so he is uncontrollable. (on top of that)

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上に – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (3 in total)

  • Kert


    Can someone help understand the phrase?
    In かれは、あやしいうえ気持きもわるいから、まずもてない
    What is まずもてない made of?

  • nekoyama


    まず with a negative verb means something like “hardly”.
    もてる means to be popular, in particular with the opposite sex.

  • Daru


    On the reference links, one of them leads to a 日本語の森 private link. Maybe they made it private some time after it was added?

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