Grammar Info
N2 Lesson 2: 2/24

as well, besides, in addition to

Verb + 上(に)
[い]Adjective + 上(に)
[な]Adjective + (1) + 上(に)
Noun + (1) + 上(に)

(1) である
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使用域 一般
上(うえ)に is a grammar pattern that functions as a slightly formal way of saying ‘and’ in Japanese. It shows that something is ‘in addition to (A)’, ‘as well as (A)’, or ‘besides (A)’. Literally, it simply shows that ‘on top of (A), (B)’.
上(うえ)に may be used after that standard form of verbs and い-Adjectives, な-Adjectives followed by な上(うえ)に, and nouns followed by の上(うえ)に. Occasionally, the に may be dropped from this structure, without changing the meaning at all.
  • 私(わたし)の犬(いぬ)は子供(こども)を見(み)ると吠(ほ)える上(うえ)に噛(か)みつこうとするので子供(こども)には近(ちか)づけさせないようにさせています。
    In addition to barking, my dog tries to bite children when he sees them, so I try not to let him come close to them.
  • 家(いえ)の近所(きんじょ)にあるレストランはまずい上(うえ)に、高(たか)いからいつも空(す)いている。
    The restaurant near my house is always empty because in addition to having bad food, they are expensive.
  • 高橋(たかはし)くんは無礼(ぶれい)な上(うえ)に清潔感(せいけつかん)がないため、周(まわ)りの人(ひと)たちには避(さけ)けられている。
    Takahashi-kun is rude as well as unhygienic, so he is avoided by the people around him.
  • 彼女(かのじょ)は調理師免許(ちょうりしめんきょ)の上(うえ)に健康食(けんこうしょく)アドバイザーの資格(しかく)も持(も)っているので、彼女(かのじょ)が作(つく)る料理(りょうり)は健康的(けんこうてき)で美味(おい)しいです。
    In addition to having a chef’s license, she also has qualification as a nutrition advisor, so the food she makes is healthy and delicious.
When it comes to な-Adjectives and nouns, it is also common to see である上(うえ)に used as a conjugation pattern.
  • あそこの駅(えき)は不便(ふべん)である上(うえ)に利用者(りようしゃ)が減(へ)っている為(ため)、来月(らいげつ)の中旬(ちゅうじゅん)に取(と)り壊(こわ)されるそうだ。
    I heard that the station over there is going to get torn down in the middle of next month because in addition to being inconvenient, it is losing users.
  • ケントさんは新聞記者(しんぶんきしゃ)である上(うえ)にスーパーヒーローでもあった。
    Kent-san was a newspaper reporter as well as a superhero.
Caution - 上(うえ)に must always be used to highlight qualities of something that are equivalent to each other. For example, a good thing and another good thing, or a bad thing and another bad thing.
  • あの建築会社(けんちくがいしゃ)が建(た)てる家(いえ)は丈夫(じょうぶ)な上(うえ)にお洒落(しゃれ)なので、すごく人気(にんき)があるらしい。
    Apparently that building company is very popular right now because the houses they build are durable as well as stylish.
  • 彼(かれ)はハンサムな上(うえ)に失礼(しつれい)だから、あまりモテない。
    He is not very popular because in addition to being handsome, he is rude.
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As well as being cheap, that gym is close to my house.
I heard that restaurant changed its menu, in addition to being remodeled.
In addition to being easy, today's homework load was light.
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