Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 8: 13/13

Someone, Somewhere, Not anyone, Not anywhere

The meaning of these words will change, based on whether the sentence is positive, or negative

WH-Word(1) + + Particle(2)
WH-Word(1) + Particle(2) +

(1) どこ、誰
Part of Speech Pronoun
Word Type Adverbial Particle
Register Standard
品詞 副詞
単語の種類 副助詞
使用域 一般
The constructions 誰(だれ)か, and どこか are used when you want to ask, or answer questions about ‘someone’, or ‘somewhere’ (positive sentences). Alternatively, ‘no one’, or ‘nowhere’ based statements are made with 誰(だれ)も, and どこも (negative sentences). Structures like this that use 誰(だれ) were briefly discussed in the 誰(だれ) grammar point.
  • 誰(だれ)かます
    Is anyone here?
  • 来月(らいげつ)どこかへ行(い)きます
    Are you going somewhere next month?
  • 俺(おれ)誕生日(たんじょうび)パーティー誰(だれ)も来(こ)なかった
    No one came to my birthday party.
  • 9時(じ)からどこも開(あ)いていない
    Since it is 9pm, nowhere is open.
Using 誰(だれ), or どこ is not limited to the and particles. , , or may also be partnered with or , to give a more specific meaning.
  • 休(やす)み日(ひ)どこかへ行(い)きました
    Did you go anywhere during your break?
  • 誰(だれ)か言(い)っ
    Did you tell anyone? (Literally, ‘did you tell it to anyone?’)
  • 誰(だれ)か電話(でんわ)ている
    He is on the phone with someone.
  • 今日(きょう)どこへ行(い)かない
    I don't want to go anywhere today. (Not even anywhere)
  • 明日(あした)誰(だれ)に会(あ)わない
    I will not meet anyone tomorrow. (Not even anyone)
  • 私(わたし)誰(だれ)に話(はな)す。
    I talk to anyone. (Even anyone, but less common than でも)
As can be seen with these examples, will always precede any other particle in a positive sentence. However, the opposite is true for . will always follow any other particles in negative sentences. This is because will always attach directly to the noun (when altering the meaning of that noun), but alters the whole phrase, not just the noun.
However, It should be noted that is not limited to appearing in negative sentences, as can be seen with the final example.
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'Do you have friends somewhere?'
'I don't have friends anywhere.'
'Did you tell someone about that?'
'No, I didn't tell anyone.'
'It is probably somewhere.'
'It is not anywhere (I'm telling you).'
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 235
みんなの日本語 I
Page 38 [CH 5]
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 101