In addition to ‘passive
’ verbs, れる
(the auxiliary verbs) are used when expressing 可能（かのう） ‘possibility’.
will be attached to the base form of る-Verbs
(the form after る has been removed).
Can you deliver it by tomorrow? (Natural Japanese, and may express ‘potential’, ‘passivity’, ‘respect’, or ‘spontaneous occurrence’)
Can you eat all of this on your own? (Natural Japanese, and may express ‘potential’, ‘passivity’, ‘respect’, or ‘spontaneous occurrence’)
A common sight in modern Japanese is ラ抜（ぬ）き言葉（ことば） (words where the ら may be removed, and れる
may be used by itself). However, this is not technically correct Japanese, and may cause confusion in cases where ら is required (with る-Verbs
, when られる
is expressing ‘passivity’, ‘respect’, or ‘spontaneous occurrence’).
Tom is able to remember new grammar immediately. (Natural Japanese only when expressing ‘potential’, not ‘passivity’, ‘respect’, or ‘spontaneous occurrence’)
He can eat anything. (Natural Japanese only when expressing ‘potential’, not ‘passivity’, ‘respect’, or ‘spontaneous occurrence’)
, they will behave a little differently. Instead of the final kana of the verb changing to an あ sound, and then adding れる (as would be the case with passive
verbs), the final kana of the verb will change to an え sound (る will become れ, う will become え, す will become せ, etc.) before adding る.
Are you able to play this song?
You can catch many kinds of fish in this lake.
verbs do not have a ‘potential
’ form, and the verb できる
will be used in its place.
ことができる and られる (when used in its ‘potential’ meaning) have exactly the same nuance. However, many people consider ことができる to be slightly more polite.
When using the potential
form, either を
may be used to mark the ‘object’. You will need to be careful though, as this does not apply to できる
, which may only ever use が
I can finally take a shower!
What can you eat?
Tom is able to speak Japanese, French, and English.