Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 6: 8/16

~て (Reasons and Causes)
and・and so, due to, because of, since, conjunctive

Notice that Verb[て] + すみません uses this version of て

Verb[て]+ Phrase
[い]Adjective[て]+ Phrase
[な]Adjective + + Phrase
Noun + + Phrase

いいよくて + B
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使用域 一般
One of the functions that the conjunction particle performs in Japanese is very similar to ‘since’, or ‘due to’, in English. Phrases that use this particular (A) (B) nuance of the て-form primarily express something that is beyond the control of the speaker in the (B) statement.
To use this grammar construction, pair the て-form of a verb or い-Adjective with the (B) phrase. In the case of nouns and な-Adjectives, (the particle) will be used instead.
  • 犯人(はんにん)捕(つか)まっ安心(あんしん)です
    I feel safe because the criminal got caught.
  • 今日(きょう)宿題(しゅくだい)多(おお)く行(い)けなかった。
    I couldn't go today because I had a lot of homework.
  • 田舎(いなか)静(しず)かなので落(お)ち着(つ)きます
    I can relax in the countryside because it is quiet.
  • 虫歯(むしば)歯(は)痛(いた)
    My tooth hurts because of a cavity.
Fun Fact
The ‘because’ nuance of (or ) in this grammar construction is primarily influenced by the (B) phrase being something that is uncontrollable, rather than being a different meaning of the particles , or themselves. Literally the meaning is closer to the following:
(A) て 困(こま)る - Being troubled cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 嬉(うれ)しい - Being happy cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 大変(たいへん) - Having a problem cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て びっくり - Being surprised cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 疲(つか)れている - Being worn-out cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 心配(しんぱい) - Feeling anxiety cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
Many other words, such as the ones listed above will cause (or ) to have a similar nuance. てすみません also uses this meaning of , as すみません is a feeling that the speaker cannot control, relating to the situation being left unfinished.
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"I ate many sweets and I have an upset stomach!" | "I have an upset stomach because I ate many sweets."
I can relax because the room is clean. | The room is clean and I can relax.
Mary returned to the USA and I am sad. | I am sad because Mary returned to the USA.
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