Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 6: 8/16

~て (Reasons and Causes)

And・and so, Due to, Because of, Since, Conjunctive

Notice that Verb[て] + すみません uses this version of て

Structure

Verb[て]+ Phrase
[い]Adjective[て]+ Phrase
[な]Adjective + + Phrase
Noun + + Phrase

Exceptions:
いいよくて + B

Details

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    Standard

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    一般

About Verb[て] + B

One of the functions that the conjunction particle performs in Japanese is very similar to 'since', or 'due to', in English. Phrases that use this particular (A) (B) nuance of the て-form primarily express something that is beyond the control of the speaker in the (B) statement.
To use this grammar construction, pair the て-form of a verb or い-Adjective with the (B) phrase. In the case of nouns and な-Adjectives, (the particle) will be used instead.
  • 犯人(はんにん)(つか)まっ安心(あんしん)です
    I feel safe because the criminal got caught.
  • 今日(きょう)宿題(しゅくだい)(おお)()けなかった。
    I couldn't go today because I had a lot of homework.
  • 田舎(いなか)(しず)なので()()ます
    I can relax in the countryside because it is quiet.
  • 虫歯(むしば)()(いた)
    My tooth hurts because of a cavity.
Fun Fact
The 'because' nuance of (or ) in this grammar construction is primarily influenced by the (B) phrase being something that is uncontrollable, rather than being a different meaning of the particles , or themselves. Literally the meaning is closer to the following:
(A) て (こま)る - Being troubled cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て (うれ)しい - Being happy cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 大変(たいへん) - Having a problem cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て びっくり - Being surprised cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て (つか)れている - Being worn-out cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
(A) て 心配(しんぱい) - Feeling anxiety cannot be controlled, so (A) must have caused it.
Many other words, such as the ones listed above will cause (or ) to have a similar nuance. てすみません also uses this meaning of , as すみません is a feeling that the speaker cannot control, relating to the situation being left unfinished.

Examples

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  • 菓子(かし)たくさん()(なか)(いた)。」

    'I ate many sweets and I have an upset stomach!' ('I have an upset stomach because I ate many sweets')

    • 部屋(へや)綺麗(きれい)のんびりできます

      I can relax because the room is clean. (The room is clean and I can relax)

      • メアリーアメリカ(かえ)(かな)しいです

        Mary returned to the USA and I am sad. (I am sad because Mary returned to the USA)

        • 勇者(ゆうしゃ)さま(ねん)(まえ)交通事故(こうつうじこ)()んだ

          The hero died due to a car accident 5 years ago. (The hero got into a car accident 5 years ago and died)

          The noun preceding で is an event (often negative) that is beyond the control of the speaker or writer. It cannot be rephrased to から or ので.

          • 日本語(にほんご)能力試験(のうりょくしけん)合格(ごうかく)(うれ)しかったです

            I passed the Japanese Language Proficiency Test, so I was glad.

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            Verb[て] + B – Grammar Discussion

            Most Recent Replies (16 in total)

            • lorenzosama

              lorenzosama

              Thank you for the response. I think I sort of understand but I want to make sure I’m really getting it. I’m not sure I understand what the difference is between “because it’s raining” vs “due to the rain”. I think my understanding now is that ので should be working on full sentences but the particle で by itself can be used to add context to the verb within the sentence?

            • nekoyama

              nekoyama

              I don’t think there is a big difference in meaning. That’s why bunpro will not mark you wrong if you enter なので. It just asks for a different answer because it wants to make sure you remember this grammar point, and not just any way to say “because”.

            • electrosuccess

              electrosuccess

              In example " 先週、インフルエンザに___、仕事を休んだのです。", the verb to be conjugated is “かかる”. The hint says that it’s ichidan verb. However, the correct answer is かかって, not かかて. According to jisho, it is a godan verb, so it appears that the hint is wrong. Is that right?

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