Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 9: 1/16

し (Reasons)

And, Giving reasons

The last し in a sentence can be replaced with から or ので


Verb (A) + + (Verb (B) +
[い]Adjective (A) + + ([い]Adjective (B) +
[な]Adjective (A) + + し + ([な]Adjective (B) + + し
Noun (A) + + し + (Noun (B) + + し


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About し~し

Like , is a conjunction particle. This means that it is used for linking the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence, and describing that link in some way. The 'description' that will highlight is 'reasons'. Regularly it is translated simply as 'and'.
may be connected to the end of almost any word, but will require a before it when it comes after nouns or な-Adjectives. will follow every 'reason' that is being listed in a sentence. However, the last may be replaced with から or ので, before the 'result' is stated.
  • 彼女(かのじょ)ピアノ()ける、スポーツできる彼女(かのじょ)出来(でき)ないことはない(おも)
    She can play the piano and she can do sports. I think there isn't anything she can't do.
  • このレストラン(たか)、まず(なに)いいところない
    This restaurant is expensive and doesn't taste good. There are no good parts.
  • (かれ)真面目(まじめ)親切(しんせつ)(かれ)友達(ともだち)でよかった
    He is serious and nice. I am glad that he is my friend.
  • 今日(きょう)(やす)()今日(きょう)公園(こうえん)()こう
    Today is my day off, and it's sunny, so let's go to the park.
Using will indicate that each 'reason' being listed is of equal weight/importance. Because of this, it would not be appropriate to use in sentences where one of the reasons clearly far outweighs everything else.
  • 昨日(きのう)(あめ)()てた、おばあちゃん()くなっ(かな)な。
    It was raining yesterday and my grandmother also passed away, so I'm sad. (Unnatural Japanese, as the level of sadness between losing your grandmother, and it being a rainy day would be completely different)
Fun Fact
In all of its uses, indicates things that are 矛盾(むじゅん)()共存(きょうぞん)する, which basically means 'things that coexist, without contradicting each other'. This is the primary reason why each thing listed must be of equal importance (in terms of the overall story that the speaker is trying to convey).



  • (かれ)掃除(そうじ)でき料理(りょうり)(つく)れる結婚(けっこん)てよかった

    He can clean and cook. I am glad that I married him.

    • この(あか)可愛(かわい)デザインいいこの帽子(ぼうし)()いたい

      This red is cute and the design is good. I want to buy this hat!

      • 彼女(かのじょ)親切(しんせつ)綺麗(きれい)本当(ほんとう)大好(だいす)

        She is kind and beautiful. I really love her.

        • この近所(きんじょ)治安(ちあん)いいスーパー(ちか)(ひと)(やさ)しいからここ()んでみたい

          This neighborhood is safe and the store is close and the people are nice, so I wouldn't mind living here.

          • (ぼく)全然(ぜんぜん)やりたくないやること(おお)すぎる(あきら)ようと(おも)っています

            I have absolutely no desire to do it and there are too many things to do, (so) I am thinking about giving up.

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