Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 9: 1/15

し (Reasons)
and, giving reasons

The last し in a sentence can be replaced with から or ので

Verb (A) + + (Verb (B) +
[い]Adjective (A) + + ([い]Adjective (B) +
[な]Adjective (A) + + し + ([な]Adjective (B) + + し
Noun (A) + + し + (Noun (B) + + し
Register Standard
使用域 一般
Like , is a 接続助詞(せつぞくじょし) (conjunction particle). This means that it is used for linking the (A) and (B) parts of a sentence, and describing that link in some way. The ‘description’ that will highlight is ‘reasons’. Regularly it is translated simply as ‘and’.
may be connected to the end of almost any word, but will require a before it when it comes after nouns or な-Adjectives. will follow every ‘reason’ that is being listed in a sentence. However, the last may be replaced with から or ので, before the ‘result’ is stated.
  • 彼女(かのじょ)ピアノ弾(ひ)ける、スポーツできる、彼女(かのじょ)に出来(でき)ないことはないと思(おも)う
    She can play the piano and she can do sports. I think there isn’t anything she can’t do.
  • このレストラン高(たか)、まず何(なに)もいいところない
    This restaurant is expensive and doesn’t taste good. There are no good parts.
  • 彼(かれ)真面目(まじめ)、親切(しんせつ)、彼(かれ)友達(ともだち)でよかった
    He is serious and nice. I am glad that he is my friend.
  • 今日(きょう)休(やす)み、晴(は)れ、今日(きょう)公園(こうえん)に行(い)こう
    Today is my day off, and it’s sunny, so let’s go to the park.
Using will indicate that each ‘reason’ being listed is of equal weight/importance. Because of this, it would not be appropriate to use in sentences where one of the reasons clearly far outweighs everything else.
  • 昨日(きのう)雨(あめ)降(ふ)ってた、おばあちゃん亡(な)くなっ、悲(かな)しな。
    It was raining yesterday and my grandmother also passed away, so I’m sad. (Unnatural Japanese, as the level of sadness between losing your grandmother, and it being a rainy day would be completely different)
Fun Fact
In all of its uses, indicates things that are 矛盾(むじゅん)無(な)く共存(きょうぞん)する, which basically means ‘things that coexist, without contradicting each other’. This is the primary reason why each thing listed must be of equal importance (in terms of the overall story that the speaker is trying to convey).
Slow Male
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He can clean and cook. I am glad that I married him.
This red is cute and the design is good. I want to buy this hat!
She is kind and beautiful. I really love her.
Genki II 1st Edition
Page 11
みんなの日本語 II
Page 24 [CH 28]
Genki II 2nd Edition
Page 31
Marugoto Elementary 2 (A2) Rikai
Page 66
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 395
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 112