is a phrase in Japanese that is often translated to ‘in the event of (A)’, or ‘in the case of (A)’. It can be used with almost any type of word, but will require な when following a な-Adjective
, or の
when following a noun.
In the event that you will ride a motorbike, please wear a helmet.
In the case that you have a bad cough, please wear a mask.
In the case that your work is difficult, call me.
In my case, I like winter. (Personally I like winter)
by itself is usually translated as ‘case’, or ‘situation’. It is frequently used to highlight a hypothetical situation, or a viewpoint/characteristic of another person.
If I were to go to Asakusa station, which train would be the best to take?
In a situation like this, what would you do?
is highlighting a viewpoint/characteristic of another person, this is almost always in contrast/comparison to something that is already being discussed. This is an example of the contrastive nuance of the は
In relation to a situation, because 場合（ばあい）
means ‘to encounter (A)’, it has a nuance of randomness. Due to this, 場合（ばあい）は
will not be used to describe events that regularly occur, or events that can be planned/controlled.
If I were to go to school, I would wake up early. (Unnatural Japanese, unless going to school is an unusual thing for this person)
When I go to school, I wake up early. (Natural Japanese, if going to school is a regular thing for this person)
In the event that you will come to tomorrow’s party, please bring some beer. (Focuses on the possibility of coming)
When you come to the party, bring some beer with you. (Focuses on the request)