Grammar Info

N4 Lesson 8: 11/18

If, When, Whenever, And, [Conditional]

Structure

Verb +
[い]Adjective +
[な]Adjective + +
Noun + +

Details

  • Register

    Standard

  • 使用域

    一般

About と

In the same way as the case marking particle means 'and', sometimes it is translated as 'if'. In these cases, it is considered to be far stronger than , なら, or たら (which express hypothetical outcomes). This is because one of the primary uses of is highlighting a result. In these cases, is actually a conjunction particle, and shows one of three things.
仮定(かてい)順接(じゅんせつ) - A result that is assumed to be true, and obvious.
確定(かくてい)順接(じゅんせつ) - A result that is known to be true.
仮定(かてい)逆接(ぎゃくせつ) - The opposite of a result that is assumed to be true.
Due to this, the (B) part of a phrase using as 'if', will always occur when (A) happens, as it is considered to be the result of (A).
  • (あま)ものいっぱい()(ふと)
    If you eat a lot of sweet things, you will gain weight.
  • 部屋(へや)(きたな)、お(かあ)さんに(おこ)られる
    If my room is messy, my mother will yell at me.
  • 部屋(へや)(しず)(ねむ)ない
    If my room is quiet, I can't sleep.
  • 地下鉄(ちかてつ)、5(ふん)(はや)()
    If it's the subway, you will arrive 5 minutes faster.
may not be used in situations where the (B) result 'might' happen. It must be definite (or close to definite).
  • (はし)けがする
    If I run, I will injure myself. (Unnatural Japanese, unless this person always injures themselves while running for some reason)
In this particular nuance of , despite being translated as 'if', the actual meaning is much closer to 'and', as is expressing that (A) and (B) will always go together.
  • ()()(なに)()ない
    I close my eyes, and I can't see.

Examples

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    勉強(べんきょう)する、テスト簡単(かんたん)になる。

    If you study, the test will be easy.

    この(いし)(みが)綺麗(きれい)になる。

    If you polish this rock, it will become beautiful.

    ここから()富士山(ふじさん)全然(ぜんぜん)()ない

    If you look from here, you can't see Mt. Fuji at all.

    水着(みずぎ)()って()(わす)れる(うみ)(はい)ない

    If you forget to bring your swimsuit, you won't be able to swim in the ocean.

    (しゅう)に3(かい)トレーニングするだんだん(つよ)くなる。

    Whenever you workout three times a week, you gradually get stronger. (if...)

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と – Grammar Discussion

Most Recent Replies (6 in total)

  • jrmr50

    jrmr50

    how do I know when と means if, when or and?

  • Ambo100

    Ambo100

    Usually based on context, in some of the examples there is a comma after と.

    勉強べんきょうをする、テストは簡単かんたんになる。

    このいしみが綺麗きれいになる。

    ここから富士山ふじさん全然ぜんぜんえない。

    You wouldn’t use a comma if you are using と to join nouns.

    と can be used more than once when used to mean ‘and’, unlike in the conditional と.

    バナナリンゴオレンジとか

  • jrmr50

    jrmr50

    thank you, explained very clearly…

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