Grammar Info
N4 Lesson 2: 13/17

より
More than, Over

Structure
Noun/Verb + より + Adjective
Details
Register Standard
使用域 一般
Information
In N5, we learned about the use of より that is seen when making comparisons in より~のほうが. However, in this lesson, we will take a look at how this 格助詞(かくじょし) (case-marking particle) can be used by itself. When used alone, this particle expresses that (A) (a noun or verb) is being compared to (B) (a noun or verb that is regularly paired with an adjective). The word that より is directly attached to will always be ‘less than’ the comparison being made. However, the overall expression is used to describe that (B) is ‘more’ (something) than (A).
  • パンダバナナより重(おも)
    Pandas are heavier than bananas.
  • 太陽(たいよう)ロウソクより明(あか)る
    The sun is brighter than a candle.
Caution
In many textbooks, より is taught as meaning ‘more’, but the word that より is attached to will actually be the thing that is ‘less’ (something). The word/quote that has attached to it will be the thing that is ‘more’ (adjective). This is particularly confusing when より is not directly attached to a word, something which is common in casual spoken language.
  • これより高(たか)いものになります
    This is the thing that would be more expensive. (Compared to everything else that is here)
In this sentence, because the is attached to これ, これ is the thing that is ‘more expensive’. As より is not actually directly connected to any other word, it therefore means that これ is expensive, compared to ‘other things’. When you see より like this, just pretend that it says ‘other things’ before it.
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あなた絵(え)私(わたし)絵(え)より上手(じょうず)
Your paintings are better than mine.
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月曜日(げつようび)より日曜日(にちようび)いい
Sunday is better than Monday.
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日本語(にほんご)英語(えいご)より話(はな)しにくい
Japanese is harder to speak than English.
Books
みんなの日本語 I
Page 80 [CH 12]
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 564
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
Page 270