Grammar Info
N1 Lesson 2: 9/17

う・よう + が~まいが
even if, no matter what, whether or not, [emphatic], volitional + が・と

Even if / No matter what

Verb [おう] + (1)
Verb[まい] + (1)
Noun + だろう.(2) + (1)
[な]Adjective + だろう(2) + (1)
[い]Adjective[+ かろう

Whether or not

Verb [おう] + (1) + Verb[まい] + (1)
Noun (A) + だろう(2) + (1) + Noun (B) だろう(2) + (1)
[な]Adjective1 + だろう(2) + (1) + [な]Adjective2 + だろう(2) + (1)
[い]Adjective[+ かろう + [い]Adjective[+ かろう

(2) であろう
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When both the positive and negative volitional auxiliary verbs are combined with a verb in Japanese, it has the nuance of 'whether or not (A)', the result will be (B)'. This is quite emphatic, and has a literal meaning similar to 'say it does (A) or say it doesn't (A), it will still be (B)'.
As a reminder, the positive auxiliary verbs of volition are either う or よう, depending on what they are being connected to, while the negative auxiliary verb of volition is まい. Either the case marking particle が or と will appear after both the positive and the negative, with が being slightly more common.
  • 忘年会(ぼうねんかい)に出席(しゅっせき)しようが出席(しゅっせき)するまいが、会費(かいひ)はみんなからもらっています。
    Whether you attend the year-end party or not, we will collect the admissions fee from everyone.
  • 雨(あめ)が降(ふ)ろうが振(ふ)るまいが、明日(あした)は絶対(ぜったい)に釣(つ)りに行(い)くと決(き)めた。
    Whether it rains or not, I have decided to go fishing tomorrow.
While this structure is primarily seen after verbs, it is important to remember that other auxiliary verbs such as だ can be conjugated in the same way, as can い-Adjectives with the less common かろう structure. This means that both nouns, な-Adjectives and い-Adjectives can also appear using a similar grammar pattern. However, because the negative volitional まい cannot pair with these structures, an antonym will usually appear with them instead, with both words using the う or よう positive volitional.
  • 楽(たの)しかろうか楽(たの)しくなかろうか、学校(がっこう)は子供(こども)の仕事(しごと)だから学校(がっこう)には行(い)かなくてはだめだ。
    Whether it is fun or not, school is a child's job, so you must go to school.
  • 安全(あんぜん)だろうか安全(あんぜん)でなかろうか、2メートル以上(いじょう)の場所(ばしょ)に上(あ)がる場合(ばあい)は安全帯(あんぜんたい)を必(かなら)ず着用(あいちゃく)してください。
    Whether it is safe or not, always wear a safety belt when you climb to a place higher than 2 meters.
  • 犬(いぬ)であろうが猫(ねこ)であろうが、どちらにしても動物(どうぶつ)なので軽(かる)い気持(きも)ちで買(か)っては行(い)けない。
    Whether it is a dog or a cat, they are both animals, so they must not be bought on a whim.
Based primarily on the use of volitionals, this grammar pattern will often indicate the speaker's strong will or opinion that will not change regardless of (A).
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No matter what people say, I will always love you!
Whether or not students attend, I will proceed with my lecture as planned.
Even if it takes many years, I will do my best to find the dragon balls!
Tae Kim's Japanese Grammar Guide
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