Grammar Info
N5 Lesson 5: 9/12

~て (Conjunction)
And, Then (linking events)

ている is often shortened to てる. This applies to all tenses, including てる, てて, てた, and even てます

[る1]Verb → 見 +

[る5]Verb → 座 + って
[う]Verb → 歌 + って
[つ]Verb → 打 + って

[く]Verb → 歩 + いて
[ぐ]Verb → 泳 + いで

[ぬ]Verb → 死 + んで
[ぶ]Verb → 飛 + んで
[む]Verb → 休 + んで

[す]Verb → 話 + して

行く → 行って
問う → 問うて
請う → 請うて
Part of Speech Verb
Word Type Conjunctive Particle
Register Standard
品詞 動詞
単語の種類 接続助詞
使用域 一般
In Japanese, is a very important conjunction particle that can be used with many different structures. When it is partnered with a verb, it has special conjugation rules, depending on whether it is being added to a る-Verb or a う-Verb. In the case of う-Verbs, it also depends on what the preceding kana is.
The most common translation in any situation is just ‘and’ or ‘then’, due to (B) being highlighted as something that happens/happened after (A).
  • 山(やま)登(のぼ)って休(やす)
    To climb a mountain, then rest. (To climb a mountain, and rest)
  • 食(た)べ寝(ね)
    To eat, then sleep. (To eat, and sleep)
In these examples, we can see that basically means ‘(A) (B)’ = ‘(A) happened, then (B)’. However, this is only when it is linked to another verb.
Sometimes the form appears as . This is a change that happened throughout the course of history, in order to make sentences flow more smoothly. Despite this, there is no difference in meaning between and as a vocal change.
  • 本(ほん)読(よ)んで返(かえ)
    To read a book, then return it. (て appearing as で)
  • 遊(あそ)んで帰(かえ)
    To play, then go home. (て appearing as で)
The easiest way to identify whether to use or is by looking at the preceding kana. If the plain (dictionary) form of the verb finishes in ぐ, ぬ, ぶ, or む, then will be used. る-Verbs never use .
There are several irregular verbs when it comes to form conjugation. Let’s look at an example of each one.
  • 学校(がっこう)行(い)っ勉強(べんきょう)する
    I go to school, then study. (行(い)く’s conjugation with て)
  • ダイエット痩(や)せ
    To go on a diet, then lose weight. (する’s conjugation with て)
  • 公園(こうえん)来(き)遊(あそ)ぶ。
    To come to the park, then play. (来(く)る’s conjugation with て)
  • 答(こた)え問(と)う書(か)
    To enquire about the answer, then write it down. (問(と)う’s conjugation with て)
  • 許可(きょか)請(こ)う実行(じっこう)する
    To get permission, then act out. (請(こ)う’s conjugation with て)
Apart from these 5 verbs, the rules for form conjugation are 100% consistent.
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To eat
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To return [an object]
Genki I 2nd Edition
Page 150
みんなの日本語 I
Page 92 [CH 14]
Marugoto Elementary 1 (A2) Rikai
Page 56, 65
[DBJG] A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar
Page 464